Main Births etc
Queens County, New York
—  Borough and county  —
Long Island City New York May 2015 panorama 3.jpg
Addisleigh Park 01.JPGQueensboro Bridge New York October 2016 003.jpg
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|250px|none|alt=|Clockwise from top: Long Island City, Queensboro Bridge, Unisphere in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Addisleigh Park Historic District]]Clockwise from top: Long Island City, Queensboro Bridge, Unisphere in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Addisleigh Park Historic District


[[File:Script error: No such module "Mapframe".|250px|none|alt=|Interactive map outlining Queens]]Interactive map outlining Queens

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<div style="font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%; position: relative; top: -1.5em; width: 6em; Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "[".">Queens
Interactive map outlining Queens
Country  United States
State  New York
County Queens (coterminous)
City New York City
Settled 1683
Named for Catherine of Braganza
 • Type Borough (New York City)
 • Borough President Donovan Richards (D)
(Borough of Queens)
 • District Attorney Melinda Katz (D)
(Queens County)
 • Total 178 sq mi (460 km2)
 • Land 109 sq mi (280 km2)
 • Water 70 sq mi (200 km2)  39%
Highest elevation[1] 258.2 ft (78.7 m)
Population (2020)[Census 1]
 • Total 2,405,464
 • Density 22,124.5/sq mi (8,542.3/km2)
 • Demonym Queensite[2]
ZIP Code prefixes 110--, 111--, 113--, 114--, 116--
GDP (2018) US$93.3 billion[Census 2]
Website Official Website of the Queens Borough President

Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island,[3] with Nassau County to the east. Queens also shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island (via the Rockaways).

Queens is the second-largest in population of the five New York City boroughs with a population of 2,405,464 as of the 2020 census.[Census 1] If each borough were ranked as a city, Queens would rank as the fourth-most-populous in the U.S., after Los Angeles, Chicago, and Brooklyn. Approximately 47 percent of the residents of Queens are foreign-born.[Census 3] Queens County also is the second-most-populous county in New York State, behind Kings County. Queens is the most linguistically diverse place on Earth and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the United States.[News 1][Census 4][Census 5]

Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of the Province of New York. The settlement was presumably named for the English Queen Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705).[4][5] From 1683 to 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, combining the separate towns of Long Island City, Newtown, Flushing, Jamaica, and western Hempstead.[NYS-Laws 1] With the exception of Hempstead, all are today considered neighborhoods of Queens.

Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City.[6] It is home to two of New York City's airports: John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. Landmarks in Queens which support its economy include Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; Citi Field, home to the New York Mets baseball team; the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, site of the U.S. Open tennis tournament; Kaufman Astoria Studios; Silvercup Studios; and the Aqueduct Racetrack. Flushing is undergoing rapid gentrification with investment by Chinese transnational entities,[News 2] while Long Island City is undergoing gentrification secondary to its proximity across the East River from Manhattan.

The borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in some areas of western and central Queens, such as Ozone Park, Jackson Heights, Flushing, Astoria, and Long Island City, to neighborhoods with many low-rise structures in the eastern part of the borough.[News 3][News 4]


Colonial and post-colonial history[]

Catherine of Braganza, Queen of England

The first European settlement in the region were the Dutch, who established the colony of New Netherland. The first settlements were established in 1635 followed by further settlement at Maspeth in 1642 (ultimately unsuccessful),[7] and Vlissingen (now Flushing) in 1645.[8] Other early settlements included Newtown (now Elmhurst) in 1652 and Jamaica in 1655. However, these towns were mostly inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island (Suffolk County) who were subject to Dutch law.[9] After the capture of the colony by the English and its subsequent renaming as New York in 1664, the area (and all of Long Island) became known as Yorkshire.[NYS-Laws 2]:{{{1}}}

The Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens. Template:Long Island Originally, Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County. It was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683.[NYS-Laws 2]:{{{1}}} The county is assumed to have been named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time (she was Portugal's royal princess Catarina daughter of King John IV of Portugal).[5][4] The county was founded alongside Kings County (Brooklyn, which was named after her husband, King Charles II), and Richmond County (Staten Island, named after his illegitimate son, the 1st Duke of Richmond).[10][11][12] However, the namesake is disputed. While Catherine's title seems the most likely namesake, no historical evidence of official declaration has been found.[News 5] On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained North and South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island (today known as Rikers Island).[NYS-Laws 2]:{{{1}}} On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not already assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County (today's Bronx County).[NYS-Laws 2]:{{{1}}}

Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn, where the Battle of Long Island was largely fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the Revolutionary War. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Even though many residents opposed unannounced quartering, they supported the British crown. The quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay and hanged in Manhattan.

From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Hempstead, Jamaica, Newtown, and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead.[13][14] The seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica,[15] but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks.[16] After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 (and later completed) in an area near Mineola (now in Nassau County) known then as Clowesville.[17][18][19][NYS-Laws 3]

The 1850 United States census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, and several sites were in contention for the construction of a new one.[News 6]

In 1870, Long Island City split from the Town of Newtown, incorporating itself as a city, consisting of what had been the village of Astoria and some unincorporated areas within the town of Newtown. Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola.[News 7][News 8][News 9][News 10]

On March 1, 1860, the eastern border between Queens County (later Nassau County) and Suffolk County was redefined with no discernible change.[NYS-Laws 4] On June 8, 1881, North Brother Island was transferred to New York County.[NYS-Laws 5] On May 8, 1884, Rikers Island was transferred to New York County.[NYS-Laws 6]

Queens Boulevard, looking east from Van Dam Street, in 1920. The newly built IRT Flushing Line is in the boulevard's median.

In 1886, Lloyd's Neck, which was then part of the town of Oyster Bay and had earlier been known as Queens Village, was set off and separated from Queens County and annexed to the town of Huntington in Suffolk County.[NYS-Laws 7][20][21] On April 16, 1964, South Brother Island was transferred to Bronx County.[NYS-Laws 8]

Incorporation as borough[]

The New York City borough of Queens was authorized on May 4, 1897, by a vote of the New York State Legislature after an 1894 referendum on consolidation.[NYS-Laws 9] The eastern 280 square miles (730 km2) of Queens that became Nassau County was partitioned on January 1, 1899.[NYS-Laws 10] Queens Borough was established on January 1, 1898.[22][News 11][19]

"The city of Long Island City, the towns of Newtown, Flushing and Jamaica, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in the county of Queens, which is westerly of a straight line drawn through the middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island, in the county of Queens, to the Atlantic Ocean" was annexed to New York City,[NYS-Laws 1] dissolving all former municipal governments (Long Island City, the county government, all towns, and all villages) within the new borough.[23] The areas of Queens County that were not part of the consolidation plan,[News 9][News 12][News 13][News 14][News 15][News 16][News 17] consisting of the towns of North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, and the major remaining portion of the Town of Hempstead, remained part of Queens County until they seceded to form the new Nassau County on January 1, 1899. At this point, the boundaries of Queens County and the Borough of Queens became coterminous. With consolidation, Jamaica once again became the county seat, though county offices now extend to nearby Kew Gardens also.[News 18]

In 1899, New York City conducted a land survey to determine the exact border of Queens between the Rockaways and Lawrence. This proved difficult because the border was defined as "middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island" (now called Long Beach Island), and that particular channel had closed up by 1899. The surveyors had to determine where the channel had been when the consolidation law was written in 1894. The surveyors did so in part by speaking with local fishermen and oystermen who knew the area well.[News 17]

From 1905 to 1908 the Long Island Rail Road in Queens became electrified. Transportation to and from Manhattan, previously by ferry or via bridges in Brooklyn, opened up with the Queensboro Bridge finished in 1909, and with railway tunnels under the East River in 1910. From 1915 onward, much of Queens was connected to the New York City Subway system.[17][24] With the 1915 construction of the Steinway Tunnel carrying the IRT Flushing Line between Queens and Manhattan, and the robust expansion of the use of the automobile, the population of Queens more than doubled in the 1920s, from 469,042 in 1920 to 1,079,129 in 1930.[Census 6]

In later years, Queens was the site of the 1939 New York World's Fair and the 1964 New York World's Fair. LaGuardia Airport, in northern Queens, opened in 1939. Idlewild Airport, in southern Queens and now called JFK Airport, opened in 1948. In one of several notable incidents, TWA Flight 800 took off from the airport on July 17, 1996. In another, American Airlines Flight 587 took off from the latter airport on November 12, 2001, but ended up crashing in Queens' Belle Harbor area, killing 265 people. In late October 2012, much of Queens' Breezy Point area was destroyed by a massive six-alarm fire caused by Hurricane Sandy.

Looking south from the Queensboro Bridge in Long Island City, this photo was published in 1920 by the Queens Chamber of Commerce to illustrate the borough's "numerous attractive industrial plants."[25]
Looking south from the Queensboro Bridge in Long Island City, this photo was published in 1920 by the Queens Chamber of Commerce to illustrate the borough's "numerous attractive industrial plants."[25]


Location of Queens (red) within New York City (remainder white)

Queens is located on the far western portion of geographic Long Island and includes a few smaller islands, most of which are in Jamaica Bay, forming part of the Gateway National Recreation Area, which in turn is one of the National Parks of New York Harbor.[Primary 1] According to the United States Census Bureau, Queens County has a total area of 178 square miles (460 km2), of which 109 square miles (280 km2) is land and 70 square miles (180 km2) (39%) is water.[Census 7]

Brooklyn, the only other New York City borough on geographic Long Island, lies just south and west of Queens, with Newtown Creek, an estuary that flows into the East River, forming part of the border. To the west and north is the East River, across which is Manhattan to the west and The Bronx to the north. Nassau County is east of Queens on Long Island. Staten Island is southwest of Brooklyn, and shares only a 3-mile-long water border (in the Outer Bay) with Queens. North of Queens are Flushing Bay and the Flushing River, connecting to the East River. The East River opens into Long Island Sound. The midsection of Queens is crossed by the Long Island straddling terminal moraine created by the Wisconsin Glacier. The Rockaway Peninsula, the southernmost part of all of Queens, sits between Jamaica Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, featuring 7 miles (11 km) of beaches.[26][27][News 19]


NASA Landsat satellite image of Long Island and surrounding areas

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 32 °F (0 °C) coldest month (January) isotherm, Queens and the rest of New York City have a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with partial shielding from the Appalachian Mountains and moderating influences from the Atlantic Ocean. Queens receives precipitation throughout the year, with an average of 44.8 inches (114 cm) per year. In an average year, there will be 44 days with either moderate or heavy rain.[28]

An average winter will have 22 days with some snowfall, of which 9 days have at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) of snowfall.[28] Summer is typically hot, humid, and wet. An average year will have 17 days with a high temperature of 90 °F (32 °C) or warmer.[28] In an average year, there are 14 days on which the temperature does not go above 32 °F (0 °C) all day.[28] Spring and autumn can vary from chilly to very warm.

The highest temperature ever recorded at LaGuardia Airport was 107 °F (42 °C) on July 3, 1966.[News 20][28] The highest temperature ever recorded at John F. Kennedy International Airport was 104 °F (40 °C), also on July 3, 1966.[News 20][29] LaGuardia Airport's record-low temperature was −7 °F (−21.7 °C) on February 15, 1943, the effect of which was exacerbated by a shortage of heating oil and coal.[28][News 21] John F. Kennedy International Airport's record-low temperature was −2 °F (−18.9 °C), on February 8, 1963, and January 21, 1985.[29][News 22][News 23] On January 24, 2016, 30.5 inches (77 cm) of snow fell, which is the record in Queens.[News 24]

Tornadoes are generally rare; the most recent tornado, an EF0, touched down in College Point on August 3, 2018, causing minor damage.[News 25] Before that, there was a tornado in Breezy Point on September 8, 2012, which damaged the roofs of some homes,<[News 26] and an EF1 tornado in Flushing on September 26, 2010.[News 27] Template:Queens airports weatherbox


A typical residential street in Jackson Heights

Long Island City, a neighborhood in western Queens

Forest Hills Gardens

Four United States Postal Service postal zones serve Queens, based roughly on those serving the towns in existence at the consolidation of the five boroughs into New York City: Long Island City (ZIP codes starting with 111), Jamaica (114), Flushing (113), and Far Rockaway (116). Also, the Floral Park post office (110), based in Nassau County, serves a small part of northeastern Queens. Each of these main post offices has neighborhood stations with individual ZIP codes, and unlike the other boroughs, these station names are often used in addressing letters. These ZIP codes do not always reflect traditional neighborhood names and boundaries; "East Elmhurst", for example, was largely coined by the USPS and is not an official community. Most neighborhoods have no solid boundaries. The Forest Hills and Rego Park neighborhoods, for instance, overlap.

Residents of Queens often closely identify with their neighborhood rather than with the borough or city. The borough is a patchwork of dozens of unique neighborhoods, each with its own distinct identity:

  1. Flushing, one of the largest neighborhoods in Queens, has a large and growing Asian community. The community consists of Chinese, Koreans, and South Asians. Asians have now expanded eastward along the Northern Boulevard axis through Murray Hill, Whitestone, Bayside, Douglaston–Little Neck, and eventually into adjacent Nassau County.[30][News 28] These neighborhoods historically contained Italian Americans and Greeks, as well as Latino Americans. The busy intersection of Main Street, Kissena Boulevard, and 41st Avenue defines the center of Downtown Flushing and the Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), known as the "Chinese Times Square" or the "Chinese Manhattan".[News 29][News 30] The segment of Main Street between Kissena Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue, punctuated by the Long Island Rail Road trestle overpass, represents the cultural heart of the Flushing Chinatown. Housing over 25,000 individuals born in China alone, Flushing has become home to one of the largest Chinatowns, representing the largest Chinese population of any U.S. municipality other than New York City in total.[News 31]
  2. Howard Beach, Whitestone, and Middle Village are home to large Italian American populations.
  3. Ozone Park and South Ozone Park have large Italian, Hispanic, and Guyanese populations.
  4. Rockaway Beach has a large Irish American population.
  5. Astoria, in the northwest, is traditionally home to one of the largest Greek populations outside Greece. It also has large Spanish American and Italian American communities, and is home to a growing population of immigrants from the Middle East, South Asia, the Balkans as well as young professionals from Manhattan. Nearby Long Island City is a major commercial center and the home to Queensbridge, the largest housing project in North America.
  6. Maspeth and Ridgewood are home to many Eastern European immigrants such as Romanian, Polish, Serbian, Albanian, and other Slavic populations. Ridgewood also has a large Hispanic population.
  7. Jackson Heights and Elmhurst make up a conglomeration of Hispanic, Asian, Tibetan, and South Asian communities. Jackson Heights is also known as "Little Colombia" thanks to the gastronomical and demographic impact of Colombian people.[News 32]
  8. Woodside is home to a large Filipino American community and has a "Little Manila" as well a large Irish American population. Many Filipino Americans live in Hollis and Queens Village.
  9. Richmond Hill, in the south, is often thought of as "Little Guyana" for its large Guyanese community,[News 33] as well as Punjab Avenue (ਪੰਜਾਬ ਐਵੇਨਿਊ), or Little Punjab, for its high concentration of Punjabi people.
  10. Rego Park, Forest Hills, Kew Gardens, and Kew Gardens Hills have traditionally large Jewish populations (historically from Germany and Eastern Europe; though more recent immigrants are from Israel, Iran, and the former Soviet Union). These neighborhoods are also known for large and growing Asian communities, mainly immigrants from China.
  11. Jamaica Estates, Jamaica Hills, Hillcrest, Fresh Meadows, and Hollis Hills are also populated with many people of Jewish background. Many Asian families reside in parts of Fresh Meadows as well.
  12. Jamaica is home to large African American, Caribbean, and Central American populations. There are also middle-class African American and Caribbean neighborhoods such as Saint Albans, Queens Village, Cambria Heights, Springfield Gardens, Rosedale, Laurelton, and Briarwood along east and southeast Queens.
  13. Bellerose and Floral Park, originally home to many Irish Americans, is home to a growing South Asian population, predominantly Indian Americans.
  14. Corona and Corona Heights, once considered the "Little Italy" of Queens, was a predominantly Italian community with a strong African American community in the northern portion of Corona and adjacent East Elmhurst. From the 1920s through the 1960s, Corona remained a close-knit neighborhood. Corona today has the highest concentration of Latinos of any Queens neighborhood, with an increasing Chinese American population, located between Elmhurst and Flushing.[31]


Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 16,014
1800 16,916 5.6%
1810 19,336 14.3%
1820 21,519 11.3%
1830 22,460 4.4%
1840 30,324 35.0%
1850 36,833 21.5%
1860 57,391 55.8%
1870 73,803 28.6%
1880 90,574 22.7%
1890 128,059 41.4%
1900 152,999 19.5%
1910 284,041 85.6%
1920 469,042 65.1%
1930 1,079,129 130.1%
1940 1,297,634 20.2%
1950 1,550,849 19.5%
1960 1,809,578 16.7%
1970 1,986,473 9.8%
1980 1,891,325 −4.8%
1990 1,951,598 3.2%
2000 2,229,379 14.2%
2010 2,230,722 0.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[Census 8]
1790-1960[Census 9] 1900-1990[Census 9]1990-2000[Census 10] 2010-2018[Census 3] 2020[Census 1]
New York's five boroughs overview
Jurisdiction Population Land area
Borough of County of 1 July 2011
Manhattan New York 1,601,948 23 59
The Bronx Bronx 1,392,002 42 109
Brooklyn Kings 2,532,645 71 183
Queens Queens 2,247,848 109 283
Staten Island Richmond 470,467 58 151
8,244,910 303 786
19,465,197 47,214 122,284
Source: United States Census Bureau[32][33][34]
Racial composition 2020[Census 11] 2018[Census 12][Census 3] 2010[35] 1990[Census 13] 1970[Census 13] 1950[Census 13]
White 25.8% 47.9% 39.7% 57.9% 85.3% 96.5%
—Non-Hispanic 22.8% 25.0% 27.6% 48.0% n/a n/a
Black or African American 16.8% 20.7% 19.1% 21.7% 13.0% 3.3%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 27.8% 28.1% 27.5% 19.5% 7.7%[36] n/a
Asian 27.5% 26.8% 22.9% 12.2% 1.1% 0.1%

The Elmhurst Chinatown (艾姆赫斯特 唐人街) at the corner of Broadway and Dongan Avenue

Street scene in Astoria, a largely Greek-American neighborhood

At the 2020 census, 2,405,464 people lived in Queens. In 2018's American Community Survey, the population of Queens was estimated by the United States Census Bureau to have increased to 2,278,906, a rise of 2.2%. Queens' estimated population represented 27.1% of New York City's population of 8,398,748; 29.6% of Long Island's population of 7,701,172; and 11.7% of New York State's population of 19,542,209. The 2019 estimates reported a decline to 2,253,858.[Census 12]"2019 ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates Program".,%20Queens%20County,%20New%20York%20demographics&tid=ACSDP1Y2019.DP05&hidePreview=false. </ref> In 2018, there were 865,878 housing units, and 777,904 households, 2.97 persons per household, and a median value of $481,300. There was an owner-occupancy rate of 44.5.[Census 12] In the 2010 United States census, Queens recorded a population of 2,230,722. There were 780,117 households enumerated, with an average of 2.82 persons per household. The population density was 20,465.3 inhabitants per square mile (7,966.9/km2). There were 835,127 housing units at an average density of 7,661.7 per square mile (2,982.6/km2).

The racial makeup of the county in 2010 was 39.7% White, 19.1% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 22.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.9% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. A total of 27.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latin American of any race. The non-Hispanic white population was 27.6%.[35] In 2019, non-Hispanic whites made up an estimated 24.4% of the population, and Blacks or African Americans were 17.3%.[Census 12] The largest minority groups for the borough were Hispanic and Latin Americans (28.2%), and Asians (26.0%).

In Queens, residents consisted of 6.2% under 5, 13.9% 6-18, 64.2% 19–64, and 15.7% over 65. Females made up 51.5% of the population. An estimated 47.5% of residents are foreign-born in 2018. The per capita income was $28,814, and the median household income was $62,008. In 2018, 12.2% of residents lived below the poverty line.

The New York City Department of City Planning was alarmed by the negligible reported increase in population between 2000 and 2010. Areas with high proportions of immigrants and undocumented aliens are traditionally undercounted for a variety of reasons, often based on a mistrust of government officials or an unwillingness to be identified. In many cases, counts of vacant apartment units did not match data from local surveys and reports from property owners.[News 34]

Ethnic groups[]

According to a 2001 Claritas study, Queens was the most diverse county in the United States among counties of 100,000+ population.[Census 14] A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Queens County to be the 3rd most racially diverse county-equivalent in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska—as well as the most diverse county in New York.[Census 4] Meanwhile, a 2017 study by Axios found that, although numerous smaller counties in the United States had higher rates of diversity, Queens was the United States' most diverse populous county.[Census 5]

In Queens, approximately 48.5% of the population was foreign born as of 2010. Within the foreign born population, 49.5% were born in Latin America, 33.5% in Asia, 14.8% in Europe, 1.8% in Africa, and 0.4% in North America. Roughly 2.1% of the population was born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or abroad to American parents. In addition, 51.2% of the population was born in the United States. Approximately 44.2% of the population over 5 years of age speak English at home; 23.8% speak Spanish at home. Also, 16.8% of the populace speak other Indo-European languages at home. Another 13.5% speak a non-Indo-European Asian language or language of the Pacific Islands at home.[Census 15]

Little India in Jackson Heights

Among the Asian population in 2010, people of Chinese ethnicity made up the largest ethnic group at 10.2% of Queens' population, with about 237,484 people; the other East and Southeast Asian groups are: Koreans (2.9%), Filipinos (1.7%), Japanese (0.3%), Thais (0.2%), Vietnamese (0.2%), and Indonesians and Burmese both make up 0.1% of the population.[Census 16] People of South Asian descent made up 7.8% of Queens' population: Indians (5.3%), Bangladeshi (1.5%), Pakistanis (0.7%), and Nepali (0.2%).[Census 16] In 2019, Chinese Americans remained the largest Asian ethnicity (10.9%) followed by Asian Indians (5.7%).[Census 12] Asian Indians had estimated population of 144,896 in 2014 (6.24% of the 2014 borough population),[Census 17] as well as Pakistani Americans, who numbered at 15,604.[Census 18] Queens has the second largest Sikh population in the nation after California.[News 35]

Ridgewood is home to a large Puerto Rican community

Among the Hispanic or Latin American population, Puerto Ricans made up the largest ethnic group at 4.6%, next to Mexicans, who made up 4.2% of the population, and Dominicans at 3.9%. Central Americans made up 2.4% and are mostly Salvadorans. South Americans constitute 9.6% of Queens's population, mainly of Ecuadorian (4.4%) and Colombian descent (4.2%).[Census 16] The 2019 American Community Survey estimated Mexicans and Puerto Ricans were equally the largest groups (4.5% each) in Queens, and Cuban Americans were the third largest single group. Other Hispanic and Latinos collectively made up 18.9% of the population.[Census 12] The Hispanic or Latino population increased by 61% to 597,773 between 1990 and 2006 and now accounts for over 26.5% of the borough's population.

Queens has the largest Colombian population in the city, accounting for over 35.6% of the city's total Colombian population, for a total of 145,956 in 2019;[News 32] it also has the largest Ecuadorian population in the city, accounting for 62.2% of the city's total Ecuadorian population, for a total of 101,339. Queens has the largest Peruvian population in the city, accounting for 69.9% of the city's total Peruvian population, for a total of 30,825. Queens has the largest Salvadoran population in the city, accounting for 50.7% of the city for a total population of 25,235. The Mexican population in Queens has increased 45.7% since 2011 to 71,283, the second-highest in the city, after Brooklyn.[Census 19]

Queens is also home to 49.6% of the city's Asian population. Among the five boroughs, Queens has the largest population of Chinese, Indian, Korean, Filipino, Bangladeshi and Pakistani Americans. Queens has the largest Asian American population by county outside the Western United States; according to the 2006 American Community Survey, Queens ranks fifth among US counties with 477,772 (21.18%) Asian Americans, behind Los Angeles County, California, Honolulu County, Hawaii, Santa Clara County, California, and Orange County, California.

Some main European ancestries in Queens as of 2000 include: Italian (8.4%), Irish (5.5%), German (3.5%), Polish (2.7%), Russian (2.3%), and Greek (2.0%). Of the European American population, Queens has the third largest Bosnian population in the United States behind only St. Louis and Chicago, numbering more than 15,000.[News 36]

The Jewish Community Study of New York 2011, sponsored by the UJA-Federation of New York, found that about 9% of Queens residents were Jews.[Census 20] In 2011, there were about 198,000 Jews in Queens, making it home to about 13% of all people in Jewish households in the eight-county area consisting of the Five Boroughs and Westchester, Nassau, and Suffolk counties.[Census 20] Russian-speaking Jews make up 28% of the Jewish population in Queens, the largest in any of the eight counties.[Census 21]

In Queens, the Black and African American population earns more than non-Hispanic whites on average.[News 37] Many of these Blacks and African Americans live in quiet, middle-class suburban neighborhoods near the Nassau County border, such as Laurelton and Cambria Heights which have large black populations whose family income is higher than average. The migration of European Americans from parts of Queens has been long ongoing with departures from Ozone Park, Woodhaven, Bellerose, Floral Park, and Flushing (most of the outgoing population has been replaced with Asian Americans). Neighborhoods such as Whitestone, College Point, North Flushing, Auburndale, Bayside, Middle Village, and Douglaston–Little Neck have not had a substantial exodus of white residents, but have seen an increase of Asian population, mostly Chinese and Korean. Queens has experienced a real estate boom making most of its neighborhoods desirable for people who want to reside near Manhattan but in a less urban setting.


According to the office of the New York State Comptroller in 2000, 138 languages are spoken in the borough.[37] Another survey, in 2010, by the Modern Language Association, found that – of those over the age of five residing in Queens – 56.16% spoke a language other than English in the home.

Template:Scrolling table/top Template:Scrolling table/mid ! 1 !! 2 !! 3 !! 4 !! 5 !! 6 !! 7 !! 8 !! 9 !! 10 !! 11 !! 12 !! 13 !! 14 !! 15 !! 16 !! 17 !! 18 !! 19 !! 20 !! 21 !! 22 !! 23 !! 24 !! 25 !! 26 !! 27 !! 28 !! 29 !! 30 !! |-style="vertical-align:bottom" ! English !! Spanish !! Chinese !! Various
Indic !! Korean !! Russian !! Italian !! Tagalog !! Greek !! French
 !! Polish !! Hindi !! Urdu !! Other
Asian !! Other
[[Indo-European languages|Indo-
peTemplate:Shyan]] !! French !! Arabic !! Serbo-
 !! Hebrew !! Various
African !! Portu-
 !! [[Persian language|PerTemplate:Shysian]] !! [[Gujarati language|GuTemplate:ShyjaTemplate:ShyraTemplate:Shyti]] !! [[German language|GerTemplate:Shyman]] !! Japa
 !! Other
[[Slavic languages|SlavTemplate:Shyic]] !! Other
 !! [[Hungarian language|HunTemplate:Shygar-
iTemplate:Shyan]] !! Thai !! Viet-
 !! All
English |-style="text-align:right" | 905,890 || 493,462 || 166,570 || 71,054 || 56,701 || 34,596 || 32,268 || 31,922 || 31,651 || 27,345 || 24,118 || 19,868 || 19,262 || 18,931 || 16,435 || 14,685 || 12,505 || 10,008 || 9,410 || 8,787 || 7,364 || 7,308 || 6,942 || 6,927 || 6,723 || 4,884 || 4,667 || 3,053 || 2,830 || 2,636 || 1,160,483 |-style="text-align:right" | 43.84 || 23.88 || 8.06 || 3.44 || 2.74 || 1.67 || 1.56 || 1.54 || 1.53 || 1.32 || 1.17 || 0.96 || 0.93 || 0.92 || 0.80 || 0.71 || 0.61 || 0.48 || 0.46 || 0.43 || 0.36 || 0.35 || 0.34 || 0.34 || 0.33 || 0.24 || 0.23 || 0.15 || 0.14 || 0.13 || 56.16 |- |colspan=31 | MLA Language Map Data Center → "Queens". Modern Language Association. 2010.  Template:Scrolling table/end


In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Queens was the Diocese of Brooklyn, with 677,520 Roman Catholics worshiping at 100 parishes, followed by an estimated 81,456 Muslims with 57 congregations, 80,000 Orthodox Jews with 110 congregations, 33,325 non-denominational Christian adherents with 129 congregations, 28,085 AME Methodists with 14 congregations, 24,250 Greek Orthodox with 6 congregations, 16,775 Hindus with 18 congregations, 13,989 AoG Pentecostals with 64 congregations, 13,507 Seventh-day Adventists with 45 congregations, and 12,957 Mahayana Buddhists with 26 congregations. Altogether, 49.4% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information.[38] In 2014, Queens had 738 religious organizations, the thirteenth most out of all U.S. counties.[39]


2018 Queens Pride Parade: Caribbean Equality Project at top, and the ensuing Multicultural Festival below

Rocket Thrower (1963) at Flushing Meadows–Corona Park

Queens has been the center of the punk rock movement, particularly in New York; Ramones originated out of Forest Hills,[40] it has also been the home of such notable artists as Tony Bennett, Francis Ford Coppola, Paul Simon, and Robert Mapplethorpe.

Queens Poet Laureates (generally, 3-year appointments):

  • 1997–2001: Stephen Stepanchev (inaugural Poet Laureate)
  • 2001–2004: Hal Sirowitz (born 1949)
  • 2004–2007: Ishle Yi Park
  • 2007–2010: Julio Marzan
  • 2010–2014: Paolo Javier
  • 2015–2019: Maria Lisella[41]

Queens has notably fostered African American culture, with establishments such as The Afrikan Poetry Theatre and the Black Spectrum Theater Company catering specifically to African Americans in Queens.[Primary 2][Primary 3] In the 1940s, Queens was an important center of jazz; such jazz luminaries as Louis Armstrong, Charlie Parker, and Ella Fitzgerald took up residence in Queens, seeking refuge from the segregation they found elsewhere in New York.[42] Additionally, many notable hip-hop acts hail from Queens, including Nas, Run-D.M.C., Kool G Rap, A Tribe Called Quest, LL Cool J, MC Shan, Mobb Deep, 50 Cent, Nicki Minaj, Tony Yayo, Tragedy Khadafi, N.O.R.E., Capone (rapper), Ja Rule, Heems of Das Racist and Action Bronson.

Queens hosts various museums and cultural institutions that serve its diverse communities. They range from the historical (such as the John Bowne House) to the scientific (such as the New York Hall of Science), from conventional art galleries (such as the Noguchi Museum) to unique graffiti exhibits (such as 5 Pointz). Queens's cultural institutions include, but are not limited to:

  • 5 Pointz
  • Afrikan Poetry Theatre
  • Bowne House
  • Flushing Town Hall
  • King Manor
  • MoMA PS1
  • Museum of the Moving Image
  • Noguchi Museum
  • New York Hall of Science
  • Queens Botanical Garden
  • Queens Museum of Art
  • SculptureCenter
  • Hindu Temple Society of North America
  • Jamaica Center for Arts and Learning

The travel magazine Lonely Planet also named Queens the top destination in the country for 2015 for its cultural and culinary diversity.[News 38] Stating that Queens is "quickly becoming its hippest" but that "most travelers haven't clued in... yet,"[43] the Lonely Planet stated that "nowhere is the image of New York as the global melting pot truer than Queens."[44]


The cuisine available in Queens reflects its vast cultural diversity.[45] The cuisine of a particular neighborhood often represents its demographics; for example, Astoria hosts many Greek restaurants, in keeping with its traditionally Greek population.[Primary 4] Jackson Heights is known for its prominent Indian cuisine and also many Latin American eateries.[46]

The Queens Night Market in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, operating on Sundays from April to October starting in 2015, contains samples of food from dozens of countries.[47]


JetBlue headquarters in Queens

Queens has the second-largest economy of New York City's five boroughs, following Manhattan. In 2004, Queens had 15.2% (440,310) of all private-sector jobs in New York City and 8.8% of private-sector wages. In 2012, private-sector employment increased to 486,160.[48] Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs, with occupations spread relatively evenly across the health care, retail trade, manufacturing, construction, transportation, and film and television production sectors, such that no single sector is overwhelmingly dominant.[6]

The diversification in Queens' economy is reflected in a large amount of employment in the export-oriented portions of its economy—such as transportation, manufacturing, and business services—that serve customers outside the region. This accounts for more than 27% of all Queens jobs and offers an average salary of $43,727, 14% greater than that of jobs in the locally oriented sector.

Long Island City is one of New York City's fastest-growing neighborhoods.[News 39]

The borough's largest employment sector—trade, transportation, and utilities—accounted for nearly 30% of all jobs in 2004; in 2012, its largest employment sector became health care and social services.[48] Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. These airports are among the busiest in the world, leading the airspace above Queens to be the most congested in the country. This airline industry is particularly important to the economy of Queens, providing almost one-quarter of the sector's employment and more than 30% of the sector's wages.

Education and health services were the next largest sector in Queens and comprised almost 24% of the borough's jobs in 2004; in 2012, transportation and warehousing, and retail were the second largest at 12% each.[48] The manufacturing and construction industries in Queens are among the largest of the city and accounted for nearly 17% of the borough's private sector jobs in 2004. Comprising almost 17% of the jobs in Queens is the information, financial activities, and business and professional services sectors in 2004.

As of 2003, Queens had almost 40,000 business establishments. Small businesses act as an important part of the borough's economic vitality with two-thirds of all businesses employing between one and four people.

Several large companies have their headquarters in Queens, including watchmaker Bulova, based in East Elmhurst; internationally renowned piano manufacturer Steinway & Sons in Astoria; Glacéau, the makers of Vitamin Water, headquartered in Whitestone; and JetBlue Airways, an airline based in Long Island City.

Long Island City is a major manufacturing and back-office center. Flushing is a major commercial hub for Chinese American and Korean American businesses, while Jamaica is the major civic and transportation hub for the borough.


Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets, 2010

Arthur Ashe Stadium interior, US Open 2014

Citi Field is a 41,922-seat stadium opened in April 2009 in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park that is the home ballpark of the New York Mets of Major League Baseball.[Primary 5] Shea Stadium, the former home of the Mets and the New York Jets of the National Football League, as well as the temporary home of the New York Yankees and the New York Giants Football Team stood where Citi Field's parking lot is now located, operating from 1964 to 2008.[News 40]

The U.S. Open tennis tournament has been played since 1978 at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, located just south of Citi Field.[49] With a capacity of 23,771, Arthur Ashe Stadium is the biggest tennis stadium in the world.[News 41] The U.S .Open was formerly played at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills.[50] South Ozone Park is the home of Aqueduct Racetrack, operated by the New York Racing Association and offers Thoroughbred horse-racing from late October/early November through April.[Primary 6] Belmont Park Racetrack is mostly in Nassau County, New York however a section of the property including the Belmont Park station on the Long Island Rail Road is in Queens.


United States presidential election results for Queens County, New York[51]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 212,665 26.92% 569,038 72.03% 8,278 1.05%
2016 149,341 21.76% 517,220 75.35% 19,832 2.89%
2012 118,589 19.92% 470,732 79.08% 5,924 1.00%
2008 155,221 24.25% 480,692 75.09% 4,224 0.66%
2004 165,954 27.41% 433,835 71.66% 5,603 0.93%
2000 122,052 21.95% 416,967 75.00% 16,972 3.05%
1996 107,650 21.05% 372,925 72.94% 30,721 6.01%
1992 157,561 28.34% 349,520 62.87% 48,875 8.79%
1988 217,049 39.70% 325,147 59.47% 4,533 0.83%
1984 285,477 46.38% 328,379 53.34% 1,722 0.28%
1980 251,333 44.81% 269,147 47.98% 40,443 7.21%
1976 244,396 38.95% 379,907 60.54% 3,200 0.51%
1972 426,015 56.34% 328,316 43.42% 1,756 0.23%
1968 306,620 40.03% 410,546 53.60% 48,746 6.36%
1964 274,351 33.59% 541,418 66.28% 1,059 0.13%
1960 367,688 45.07% 446,348 54.71% 1,863 0.23%
1956 466,057 59.39% 318,723 40.61% 0 0.00%
1952 450,610 57.11% 331,217 41.98% 7,194 0.91%
1948 323,459 50.58% 268,742 42.02% 47,342 7.40%
1944 365,365 55.33% 292,940 44.36% 2,071 0.31%
1940 323,406 52.68% 288,024 46.91% 2,524 0.41%
1936 162,797 33.02% 320,053 64.92% 10,159 2.06%
1932 136,641 34.32% 244,740 61.47% 16,760 4.21%
1928 158,505 45.87% 184,640 53.43% 2,411 0.70%
1924 100,793 53.57% 58,402 31.04% 28,974 15.40%
1920 94,360 68.71% 35,296 25.70% 7,668 5.58%
1916 34,670 50.54% 31,350 45.70% 2,575 3.75%
1912 9,201 16.49% 28,076 50.32% 18,521 33.19%
1908 19,420 44.13% 20,342 46.22% 4,246 9.65%
1904 14,096 41.44% 18,151 53.36% 1,770 5.20%
1900 12,323 43.94% 14,747 52.58% 976 3.48%
1896 18,694 58.03% 11,980 37.19% 1,539 4.78%
1892 11,704 41.71% 15,195 54.15% 1,161 4.14%
1888 11,017 45.95% 12,683 52.90% 275 1.15%
1884 8,445 43.80% 10,367 53.76% 471 2.44%

Party affiliation of Queens registered voters
Party 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996
Democratic 62.94% 62.52 62.85 62.79 62.99 62.52 62.30 62.27 62.28 62.33
Republican 14.60% 14.66 14.97 15.04 15.28 15.69 16.47 16.74 16.93 17.20
Other 3.88% 3.93 3.94 3.86 3.37 3.30 3.10 3.20 3.02 2.78
No affiliation 18.58% 18.89 18.24 18.31 18.36 18.49 18.13 17.79 17.77 17.69

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Queens has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a strong mayor–council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Queens. The Queens Library is governed by a 19-member Board of Trustees, appointed by the Mayor of New York City and the Borough President of Queens.

Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Queens' Borough President is Melinda Katz, elected in November 2013 as a Democrat with 80.3% of the vote. Queens Borough Hall is the seat of government and is located in Kew Gardens.

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Sixty-three percent of registered Queens voters are Democrats. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development. Controversial political issues in Queens include development, noise, and the cost of housing.

The Queens County Courthouse was built in 1938 and houses the borough's Supreme Court, Surrogate Court and County Clerk.[Primary 7]

Each of the city's five counties has its criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Richard A. Brown, who ran on both the Republican and Democratic Party tickets, was the District Attorney of Queens County from 1991 to 2018. The new DA as of January 2020 is Melinda Katz.[52] Queens has 12 seats on the New York City Council, the second-largest number among the five boroughs. It is divided into 14 community districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for residents.

Although Queens is heavily Democratic, it is considered a swing county in New York politics. Republican political candidates who do well in Queens usually win citywide or statewide elections. Republicans such as former Mayors Rudolph Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg won majorities in Queens. Republican State Senator Serphin Maltese represented a district in central and southern Queens for twenty years until his defeat in 2008 by Democratic City Councilman Joseph Addabbo, Jr. In 2002, Queens voted against incumbent Republican Governor of New York George Pataki in favor of his Democratic opponent, Carl McCall by a slim margin.[Elections 1]

On the national level, Queens has not voted for a Republican candidate in a presidential election since 1972, when Queens voters chose Richard Nixon over George McGovern. Since the 1996 presidential election, Democratic presidential candidates have received over 70% of the popular vote in Queens.[Elections 2] Since the election of Donald Trump, Queens has become known in the United States for its surge in progressive politics and grassroots campaigning.[53]

Representatives in Congress[]

In 2018, seven Democrats represented Queens in the United States House of Representatives.[54]

  • Thomas Suozzi (first elected in 2016) represents New York's 3rd congressional district, which covers the northeast Queens neighborhoods of Little Neck, Whitestone, Glen Oaks, and Floral Park. The district also covers the North Shore of Nassau County.[54]
  • Gregory Meeks (first elected in 1998) represents New York's 5th congressional district, which covers the entire Rockaway Peninsula as well as the southeast Queens neighborhoods of Broad Channel, Cambria Heights, Hollis, Jamaica, Laurelton, Queens Village, Rosedale, Saint Albans, Springfield Gardens, and South Ozone Park. The district also includes John F. Kennedy International Airport.[54]
  • Grace Meng (first elected in 2012) represents New York's 6th congressional district, which includes the central and eastern Queens neighborhoods of Auburndale, Bayside, Elmhurst, Flushing, Forest Hills, Glendale, Kew Gardens, Maspeth, Middle Village, Murray Hill, and Rego Park.[54]
  • Nydia Velázquez (first elected in 1992) represents New York's 7th congressional district, which includes the southwest Queens neighborhoods of Maspeth, Ridgewood, and Woodhaven. The district also covers central and western Brooklyn and the Lower East Side of Manhattan.[54]
  • Hakeem Jeffries (first elected in 2012) represents New York's 8th congressional district, which includes the southwest Queens neighborhoods of Ozone Park and Howard Beach. The district also covers central and southern Brooklyn.[54]
  • Carolyn Maloney (first elected in 1992) represents New York's 12th congressional district, which includes the western Queens neighborhoods of Astoria, Long Island City, Sunnyside, and Maspeth. The district also covers the East Side of Manhattan.[54]
  • Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (first elected in 2018) represents New York's 14th congressional district, which includes the northwest Queens neighborhoods of Astoria, College Point, Corona, East Elmhurst, Jackson Heights, Woodside, and Elmhurst. The district also covers the East Bronx.[54]


Elementary and secondary education[]

Elementary and secondary school education in Queens is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Most private schools are affiliated with or identify themselves with the Roman Catholic or Jewish religious communities. Townsend Harris High School is a Queens public magnet high school for the humanities consistently ranked as among the top 100 high schools in the United States. One of the nine Specialized High Schools in New York City is located in Queens. Located in the York College, City University of New York Campus in Jamaica, the Queens High School for the Sciences at York College, which emphasizes both science and mathematics, ranks as one of the best high schools in both the state and the country. It is one of the smallest Specialized High Schools that requires an entrance exam, the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test. The school has a student body of around 400 students.

Postsecondary institutions[]

LaGuardia Community College in Long Island City, Queens

Queens College is part of the City University of New York.

  • LaGuardia Community College, part of the City University of New York (CUNY), is known as "The World's Community College" for its diverse international student body representing more than 150 countries and speaking over 100 languages. The college has been named a National Institution of Excellence by the Policy Center on the First Year of College. In a 2003 benchmark survey, in the Large Community College category (8,000–14,999 students), LaGuardia was one of three community colleges ranked number one, nationally.[55] The college hosts the LaGuardia and Wagner Archives.
  • Queens College is one of the elite colleges in the CUNY system. Established in 1937 to offer a strong liberal arts education to the residents of the borough, Queens College has over 16,000 students including more than 12,000 undergraduates and over 4,000 graduate students. Students from 120 different countries speaking 66 different languages are enrolled at the school, which is located in Flushing. Queens College is also the host of CUNY's law school. The Queens College Campus is also the home of Townsend Harris High School and the Queens College School for Math, Science, and Technology (PS/IS 499).
  • Queensborough Community College, originally part of the State University of New York, is in Bayside and is now part of CUNY. It prepares students to attend senior colleges mainly in the CUNY system.
  • St. John's University is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic university founded in 1870 by the Vincentian Fathers. With over 19,000 students, St. John's is known for its pharmacy, business and law programs as well as its men's basketball and soccer teams.
  • Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology is a private, cutting edge, degree-granting institution located across the Grand Central Parkway from LaGuardia Airport. Its presence underscores the importance of aviation to the Queens economy.
  • York College is one of CUNY's leading general-purpose liberal arts colleges, granting bachelor's degrees in more than 40 fields, as well as a combined BS/MS degree in Occupational Therapy. Noted for its Health Sciences Programs York College is also home to the Northeast Regional Office of the Food and Drug Administration.

Queens Public Library[]

A branch of the Queens Public Library in Flushing

The Queens Public Library is the public library system for the borough and one of three library systems serving New York City. Dating back to the foundation of the first Queens library in Flushing in 1858, the Queens Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States. Separate from the New York Public Library, it is composed of 63 branches throughout the borough. In the fiscal year 2001, the Library achieved a circulation of 16.8 million. The Library has maintained the highest circulation of any city library in the country since 1985 and the highest circulation of any library in the nation since 1987. The Library maintains collections in many languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Haitian Creole, Polish, and six Indic languages, as well as smaller collections in 19 other languages.


According to 2011–2015 ACS Microdata, 38% of Queens households did not own a car; the citywide rate is 55%.[56]

Vehicles for hire[]

As of 2019, the city had about 80,000 for-hire vehicles, of which, two-thirds were ride-hailUber, Lyft, Via, and Juno.[57] Until the Covid-19 pandemic, the ride-hail car offered a ride-share option. There are about 13,500 traditional taxis (yellow cabs with medallions) in the city, 7,676 boro taxis, 38,791 black cars, 21,932 livery cars, 288 commuter vans, and 2,206 paratransit vehicles.

Roundtrip car sharing[]

Zipcar, and others, entered New York City market in 2002 offering roundtrip car sharing from private locations, mostly from parking garages. In 2018, the city partnered with the roundtrip car share companies, led by Zipcar, to launch the nation's larges on-street car-sharing program with the greatest take-up in The Bronx and in Queens – Jackson Heights, Jamaica, and Far Rockaway.[58][Primary 8][Primary 9][Primary 10][Primary 11] In 2020, during beginning throes of the COVID-19 pandemic, Enterprise CarShare suspended service in New York City. Among the traditional car rental locations in Queens, both international airports harbor larger fleets, conveniently close to Queens residents.


Citi Bike – a docked-bike and e-bike sharing company had, as of July 2019, 169,000 annual subscribers. In 2021, the Department of Transportation and Citi Bike announced that, as part of its Phase 3 expansion, it was doubling its service area to 70 square miles and tripling the number of bikes to 40,000. The expansion includes 52 new docking stations in Astoria, as well as new stations in Sunnyside and Woodside.[News 42]

Non-docked e-moped service was launched in the city by Revel in 2019. Companies such as Bird, Lime, VeoRide introduced non-docked e-scooter-sharing in 2021.[59]


Five jumbo airplanes wait in a line on a runway next to a small body of water. Behind them in the distance is the airport and control tower.

John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States

Airline Revenue Passengers
at Queens Airports

2019 → pre-COVID-19 pandemic

  JFK    28,233,791    34,317,281    62,551,072

Template:Hanging indent 57,108,832 36,527,134 93,635,966
2020 → mid-COVID-19 pandemic
  JFK    8,267,666    8,362,976    16,630,642

Template:Hanging indent 16,121,034 8,754,800 24,875,834
Template:Hanging indent     (enplanements + deplanements)[60][61][62]

Queens has crucial importance in international and interstate air traffic, with two of the New York metropolitan area's three major airports located there. John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, served 62.6 million passengers (enplanements + deplanements) – 34.3 million of which were international, ranking it the busiest airport in the United States by international passenger traffic. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States imposed travel restrictions, first, in January 2020, on travelers from China and, in the following months, on travelers from other countries. 2020 annual passenger traffic at JFK dropped to 16.6 million (-73.4%) – 8.4 million (-73.4%) of which were international, still ranking it the busiest airport in the United States by international passenger traffic.[60][61][62]

JFK is owned by the City of New York and managed, since 1947, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The airport's runways and six terminals cover an area of 4,930 acres (1,995 ha) on Jamaica Bay in southeastern Queens.[63] The airport's original official name was New York International Airport, although it was commonly known as Idlewild, with the name changed to Kennedy in December 1963 to honor the assassination of John F. Kennedy, November 22, 1963.[News 43]

A multibillion-dollar reconstruction of LaGuardia Airport was announced in July 2015.[News 44]

LaGuardia Airport is located in East Elmhurst, in northern Queens, on Flushing Bay. Originally opened in 1939, the airport's two runways and four terminals cover 680 acres (275 ha), serving 28.4 million passengers in 2015.[Primary 12] In 2014, citing outdated conditions in the airport's terminals, Vice President Joe Biden compared LaGuardia Airport to a "third world country".[News 45] In 2015, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began a $4 billion project to renovate LaGuardia Airport's terminals and entryways. The project is expected to be complete by 2021.[News 44]

Public transportation[]

46th Street – Bliss Street subway station

Flushing – Main Street LIRR station


The MTA, New York City's 24-hour subway system, has 472 stations, more than any other metro system in the world – 81 of those stations on seven main lines are in Queens. The subway system has almost twice as many miles of track as any other North American system – (i) 665 mi (1,070 km) revenue length (the opposite of "revenue" track would be non-revenue track or dead mileage), (ii) 850 mi (1,368 km) total length, and (iii) 248 mi (399 km) route length. Queens has 42 mi (68 km) miles of route length – 15 mi (24 km) underground, 20 mi (32 km) elevated, 7 mi (11 km) other.[64] The A train – from 207th Street in Manhattan to Far Rockaway in Queens – is the longest line, more than 31 miles.[64] The subway system transports triple the number of people than the next five largest American cities – Chicago, Washington, Boston, San Francisco, and Philadelphia combined.

The A, G, J/Z, and M routes connect Queens to Brooklyn without going through Manhattan first. The F, M, N, and R trains connect Queens and Brooklyn via Manhattan, while the E, W, and 7/<7> trains connect Queens to Manhattan only. Trains on the M service go through Queens twice in the same trip; both of its full-length terminals, in Middle Village and Forest Hills, are in Queens.[Primary 13]

Long Island Rail Road[]

The LIRR, also part of the MTA, operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, including holidays – carrying an average of 301,000 customers a day (80 million a year, adjusting downward for weekends) on about 735 scheduled trains.[Primary 14] It is the busiest commuter rail hub in the United States. Most of its branches originate or terminate at Penn Station. All but one of its branches (the Port Washington Branch) pass through Jamaica. The New York City area served by the LIRR is called the City Terminal Zone. Within that zone, Queens has stations in Long Island City, Hunterspoint Avenue (in Long Island City), Bayside, Forest Hills, Flushing, Woodside, and Kew Gardens – 22 Queens stations, in all. There are also several stations where LIRR passengers can transfer to the subway.

Sunnyside Yard is used to store Amtrak intercity and NJ Transit commuter trains from Penn Station in Manhattan. The US$11.1 billion East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR trains to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan, is under construction and is scheduled to open in 2022; this project will create a new train tunnel beneath the East River, connecting Long Island City in Queens with the East Side of Manhattan.[News 46][News 47]

JFK AirTrain[]

The elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road along the Van Wyck Expressway;[Primary 15] a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems.[News 48][News 49] Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport itself in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities, and this project would accommodate the new AirTrain connection.[News 44]

MTA buses[]

2019 bus ridership, citywide, on the MTA system, was 2.2 million per average weekday – about 678 million for the year. In Queens, the Q58 and Q44 Select Bus Service were the seventh and tenth, respectively, citywide, busiest local lines in 2019.[Primary 16] In addition to regular bus lines serving LaGuardia Airport, the MTA offers two Select Bus Services, regular fare, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The M60 – terminals A, B, C, D – to and from Manhattan via Grand Central Parkway and the Triborough Bridge – in Harlem, along 125th Street (with a stop at the 125th Street Metro-North station), ending in Morningside Heights on the Upper West Side, a few blocks south of Columbia University. The Q70 – terminals B, C, D – through Queens, ending in Woodside at 61st Street and Roosevelt Avenue. Overall, about 100 local bus routes operate within Queens, and another 20 express routes shuttle commuters between Queens and Manhattan, under the MTA New York City Bus and MTA Bus brands.[Primary 17]

Proposed streetcar[]

A streetcar line connecting Queens with Brooklyn was proposed by the city in February 2016.[News 50][News 51] The planned timeline calls for service to begin around 2024.[News 52]

Water transit[]

Newtown Creek with the Midtown Manhattan skyline in the background.

New York Water Taxi operates service across the East River from Hunters Point in Long Island City to Manhattan at 34th Street and south to Pier 11 at Wall Street. In 2007, limited weekday service was begun between Breezy Point, the westernmost point in the Rockaways, to Pier 11 via the Brooklyn Army Terminal. Summertime weekend service provides service from Lower Manhattan and southwest Brooklyn to the peninsula's Gateway beaches.

In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012, ferry operator SeaStreak began running a city-subsidized ferry service between a makeshift ferry slip at Beach 108th Street and Beach Channel Drive in Rockaway Park and piers in Manhattan and Brooklyn.[Primary 18] The service was extended multiple times.[News 53] finally ending on October 31, 2014.[News 54]

In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin a citywide ferry service called NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to communities in the city that have been traditionally underserved by public transit.[News 55][News 56] The ferry opened in May 2017,[News 57][News 58] with the Queens neighborhoods of Rockaway and Astoria served by their eponymous routes. A third route, the East River Ferry, serves Hunter's Point South.[Primary 19]



Air Train JFK path above the Van Wyck Expressway

Queens is traversed by three trunk east–west highways. The Long Island Expressway (Interstate 495) runs from the Queens Midtown Tunnel on the west through the borough to Nassau County on the east. The Grand Central Parkway, whose western terminus is the Triborough Bridge, extends east to the Queens/Nassau border, where its name changed to the Northern State Parkway. The Belt Parkway begins at the Gowanus Expressway in Brooklyn, and extends east into Queens, past Aqueduct Racetrack and JFK Airport. On its eastern end at the Queens/Nassau border, it splits into the Southern State Parkway which continues east, and the Cross Island Parkway which turns north.[65]

There are also several major north–south highways in Queens, including the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278), the Van Wyck Expressway (Interstate 678), the Clearview Expressway (Interstate 295), and the Cross Island Parkway.[65]

Queens has six state highways that run west–east largely on surface roads. From north to south, they are New York State Route 25A (Northern Boulevard), New York State Route 25B (Hillside Avenue), New York State Route 25 (Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Braddock Avenue), New York State Route 24 (Hempstead Avenue), and New York State Route 27 (Conduit Avenue). The only state highway that primarily uses an expressway is New York State Route 878, which uses the Nassau Expressway in southern Queens.[65]


Standard cross-street signs for a single-named Boulevard and a co-named Avenue, in Queens

The streets of Queens are laid out in a semi-grid system, with a numerical system of street names (similar to Manhattan and the Bronx). Nearly all roadways oriented north–south are "Streets", while east–west roadways are "Avenues", beginning with the number 1 in the west for Streets and the north for Avenues. In some parts of the borough, several consecutive streets may share numbers (for instance, 72nd Street followed by 72nd Place and 72nd Lane, or 52nd Avenue followed by 52nd Road, 52nd Drive, and 52nd Court), often confusing non-residents.[News 59] Also, incongruous alignments of street grids, unusual street paths due to geography, or other circumstances often lead to the skipping of numbers (for instance, on Ditmars Boulevard, 70th Street is followed by Hazen Street which is followed by 49th Street). Numbered roads tend to be residential, although numbered commercial streets are not rare. A fair number of streets that were country roads in the 18th and 19th centuries (especially major thoroughfares such as Northern Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Jamaica Avenue) carry names rather than numbers, typically though not uniformly called "Boulevards" or "Parkways".

Queens house numbering was designed to provide convenience in locating the address itself; the first half of a number in a Queens address refers to the nearest cross street, the second half refers to the house or lot number from where the street begins from that cross street, followed by the name of the street itself. For example, to find an address in Queens, 14-01 120th Street, one could ascertain from the address structure itself that the listed address is at the intersection of 14th Avenue and 120th Street and that the address must be closest to 14th Avenue rather than 15th Avenue, as it is the first lot on the block. This pattern doesn't stop when a street is named, assuming that there is an existing numbered cross-street. For example, Queens College is situated at 65–30 Kissena Boulevard, and is so named because the cross-street closest to the entrance is 65th Avenue.[News 59]

Many of the village street grids of Queens had only worded names, some were numbered according to local numbering schemes, and some had a mix of words and numbers. In the early 1920s, a "Philadelphia Plan" was instituted to overlay one numbered system upon the whole borough. The Topographical Bureau, Borough of Queens, worked out the details. Subway stations were only partly renamed, and some, including those along the IRT Flushing Line (Template:NYCS trains), now share dual names after the original street names.[66] In 2012, some numbered streets in the Douglaston Hill Historic District were renamed to their original names, with 43rd Avenue becoming Pine Street.[News 60]

The Rockaway Peninsula does not follow the same system as the rest of the borough and has its own numbering system. Streets are numbered in ascending order heading west from near the Nassau County border, and are prefixed with the word "Beach." Streets at the easternmost end, however, are nearly all named. Bayswater, which is on Jamaica Bay, has its numbered streets prefixed with the word "Bay" rather than "Beach". Another deviation from the norm is Broad Channel; it maintains the north–south numbering progression but uses only the suffix "Road," as well as the prefixes "West" and "East," depending on location relative to Cross Bay Boulevard, the neighborhood's major through street. Broad Channel's streets were a continuation of the mainland Queens grid in the 1950s; formerly the highest-numbered avenue in Queens was 208th Avenue rather than today's 165th Avenue in Howard Beach & Hamilton Beach. The other exception is the neighborhood of Ridgewood, which for the most part shares a grid and house numbering system with the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bushwick. The grid runs east–west from the LIRR Bay Ridge Branch right-of-way to Flushing Avenue; and north–south from Forest Avenue in Ridgewood to Bushwick Avenue in Brooklyn before adjusting to meet up with the Bedford-Stuyvesant grid at Broadway. All streets on the grid have names.

Bridges and tunnels[]

The Triborough Bridge connects Queens with Manhattan and the Bronx.

Queens is connected to the Bronx by the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge, the Throgs Neck Bridge, the Triborough Bridge (also known as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge), and the Hell Gate Bridge. Queens is connected to Manhattan Island by the Triborough Bridge, the Queensboro Bridge, and the Queens–Midtown Tunnel, as well as to Roosevelt Island by the Roosevelt Island Bridge.

While most of the Queens/Brooklyn border is on land, the Kosciuszko Bridge crosses the Newtown Creek connecting Maspeth to Greenpoint, Brooklyn. The Pulaski Bridge connects McGuinness Boulevard in Greenpoint to 11th Street, Jackson Avenue, and Hunters Point Avenue in Long Island City. The J. J. Byrne Memorial Bridge (a.k.a. Greenpoint Avenue Bridge) connects the sections of Greenpoint Avenue in Greenpoint and Long Island City. A lesser bridge connects Grand Avenue in Queens to Grand Street in Brooklyn.

The Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge, built in 1939, traverses Jamaica Bay to connect the Rockaway Peninsula to Broad Channel and the rest of Queens.[Primary 20] Constructed in 1937, the Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge links Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn's longest thoroughfare, with Jacob Riis Park and the western end of the Peninsula.[Primary 21] Both crossings were built and continue to be operated by what is now known as MTA Bridges and Tunnels. The IND Rockaway Line parallels the Cross Bay, has a mid-bay station at Broad Channel which is just a short walk from the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, now part of Gateway National Recreation Area and a major stop on the Atlantic Flyway.

Notable people[]

Many public figures have grown up or lived in Queens.[News 61] Musicians raised in the borough include The Ramones, Nas, LL Cool J, A Tribe Called Quest, Mobb Deep, Onyx, Ja Rule, 50 Cent, Lloyd Banks, Tony Yayo, Run–D.M.C., Nicki Minaj, Lil Tecca, Rich The Kid, Tony Yayo, Action Bronson, Nadia Ali[Primary 22] and Tony Bennett.[67] Jazz greats Louis Armstrong and Norman Mapp both resided in Corona, as well as rock duo Simon & Garfunkel[68] and guitarists Scott Ian and Johnny Ramone.[69] K-pop rapper Mark Lee from the boy group NCT grew up in Queens before moving to Canada. Madonna, from 1979 to 1980, lived in Corona as a member of the band Breakfast Club.[70] Actors such as Adrien Brody,[News 62] Zoe Saldana, Lucy Liu,[News 63] John Leguizamo, Susan Sarandon, and Idina Menzel[News 64] were born or raised in Queens. Actress Mae West also lived in Queens.[News 65] Writers from Queens include John Guare (The House of Blue Leaves) and Laura Z. Hobson (Gentleman's Agreement). Mafia boss John Gotti lived in Queens for many years.[News 66] Richard Feynman, a scientist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, was born in Queens and grew up in Far Rockaway. Lee "Q" O'Denat, founder of WorldStarHipHop was from Hollis, Queens.

Donald Trump, a businessman who became the 45th President of the United States, was born in Jamaica Hospital Medical Center and raised at 81-15 Wareham Place in Jamaica Estates, later moving to Midland Parkway.[News 67][News 68][News 69] He was preceded in the White House by former First Ladies Nancy Reagan, who lived in Flushing as a child.[News 70] Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President, lived at Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay from the mid-1880s until he died;[Primary 23] the area was considered part of Queens until the formation of neighboring Nassau County in 1899. Queens has also been home to athletes such as professional basketball player Rafer Alston[News 71] Basketball players Kareem Abdul-Jabbar[lower-roman 1][71] and Metta World Peace[lower-roman 2][News 72] were both born in Queens, as was Olympic athlete Bob Beamon.[News 73] Tennis star John McEnroe[72] was born in Douglaston. Hall of Fame baseball pitcher Whitey Ford grew up in Astoria.[News 74] Journalist Marie Colvin was a native of Queens.

In popular culture[]

Queens has also served as a setting for various fictional characters, one of the more famous being Peter Parker / Spider-Man from Marvel Comics. He grew up in Forest Hills with his Aunt May and Uncle Ben.

The Cemetery Belt[]

Several large cemeteries in Queens – St. Michaels, Luthern, Calvary, Cypress Hill, Mt. Olivet and Mt. Zion – together with several in Brooklyn are collectively known as The Cemetery Belt. Calvary, by itself – with about 3 million burials – has the larges number of interments of any cemetery in the United States.

See also[]

  • List of tallest buildings in Queens
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Queens County, New York




  1. ^ Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was born Lew Alcindor (Template:Italic correction Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor, Jr.).
  2. ^ Born Ron Artest.


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  3. ^ "Queens". New York State. "Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City, geographically adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn" 
  4. ^ a b TripSavvy (formerly; Roleke, John W. (born 1971) (January 4, 2006). "How Did Queens Gets Its Name?". 
  5. ^ a b "New York City – Geography and Origins: Queens". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc.. May 8, 1999. 
  6. ^ a b "Queens: Economic Development and the State of the Borough Economy. Report 3-2007". June 2006. 
  7. ^ Shorto, Russell (ed.); Funk, Howard Leroy (1930–2011) (consulting web designer) (2004). "Long Island: Maspeth / Middleburgh / Hastings / Newtown" (in en-US). A [Virtual Tour of New Netherland]. New Netherland Project & New Netherland Institute (publisher). New York State Library & the Holland Society of New York (funders).  OCLC 731873680 (NNI).
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  12. ^ Mushabac, Jane Esther, PhD (born 1944); Wigan, Angela Harman (Template:Italic correction; born 1943; married to composer Mel W. Marvin) (1999). A Short and Remarkable History of New York City (entry: "1683"). Retrieved December 11, 2011. 
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  13. ^ Greenspan, Walter Perry (1945–2012). "Geographic History of Queens County". 
    Greenspan, formerly a commodities analyst, was, for the last ten years of his life, active with Metro New York Genealogy. In the 1980s, he was, among other things, Presidident of the New York Chapter of the Futures Industry Association.
  14. ^ French, John Homer (1824–1888) (1860). "Queens County". Gazeteer of the State of New York (towns in Queens County). Syracuse: R. Pearsall Smith (publisher). 
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  15. ^ "Early Five Borough's History". 

    "When Queens County was created the courts were transferred from Hempstead to Jamaica Village and a County Court was erected. When the building became too small for its purposes and the stone meeting house had been erected, the courts were held for some years in that edifice. Later a new courthouse was erected and used until the seat of justice was removed to North Hempstead."

  16. ^ McCurdy, John Gilbert, PhD (born 1972) (2019). Quarters – The Accommodation of the British Army and the Coming of the American Revolution. Cornell University Press. Retrieved June 1, 2020.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 2019002331-{{{3}}} (print); LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 2019004115-{{{3}}} (ebook); ISBN 978-1-5017-3661-2 (PDF); ISBN 978-1-5017-3662-9 (ebook); ISBN 978-1-501-73660-5 (cloth); OCLC 1137756892.
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  17. ^ a b (December 17, 2007) "Historical Essay: A Thumbnail View" (in en-US). Cultural Affairs.  OCLC 640142399.

       "From the final withdrawal of the British in November 1783, until the 1830s, Queens continued as an essentially Long Island area of farms and villages. The location of the county government in Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) underscores the island orientation of that era. The population grew hardly at all, increasing only from 5,791 in 1800 to 7,806 in 1830, suggesting that many younger sons moved away, seeking fortunes where land was not yet so fully taken up for farming."

       "Even more crucial to future development was the opening of the Queensboro Bridge in 1909. This span ended the isolation of the borough's road system at precisely the time when mass use of the automobile was getting underway in the United States."
  18. ^ Peterson, Jon Alvah, PhD (born 1935) (ed.); Seyfried, Vincent Francis (1918–2012) (consultant) (1987). A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens. New York: Department of History, Queens College, City University of New York. 
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  19. ^ a b Sullivan, James (1873–1931) (editor-in-chief); Williams, Edwin Melvin (1880–1966); Fitzpatrick, James Benedict (1881–1964); Conklin, Edwin Pierson (1874–1957) (associate editors) (1927) (in en-US). History of New York State, 1523–1927 (6 volumes – biographies in volume 6). New York, Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc.. Retrieved December 28, 20007.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 27024237-{{{3}}}
    OCLC 5122461.
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  20. ^ Beers, Frederick William (1839–1933), cartographer (supervisor) (1873) (in en-US). Atlas of Long Island, New York – From Recent and Actual Surveys and Records (192 pages, including 98 color maps, folded). New York: Beers, Comstock & Cline (publisher). Charles Hart (1824–1914) (printer). Louis E. Neuman (1835–1902) (engraver).  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 2016430357-{{{3}}}
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  21. ^ "Lloyd Harbor – A Brief History". Incorporated Village of Lloyd Harbor, Suffolk County, NY (website host). 
  22. ^ "Inventing Gotham – New York City and the American Dream: Consolidation" (in en-US) (a virtual tour of New York City constructed for and by eleventh and twelfth grade students at the Fieldston School in The Bronx). Fieldston School, Department of History. n.d.. 
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  23. ^ NYG&B Newsletter; Macy, Harry, Jr., F.A.S.G., F.G.B.S. (Winter 1998). Before the Five-Borough City: Queens. New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. p. 6. 

    This map shows the boundaries of the former towns and the former city within the present Borough of Queens.

  24. ^ Seyfried, Vincent Francis (1918–2012) (2004). "A Walk Through Queens with David Hartman and Historian Barry Lewis". 
       "The most momentous event in the history of Queens occurred in 1909 when the long-planned Queensboro Bridge was finally opened. This ended the century-old isolation of the county and dependence on ferries."
  25. ^ Willis, Walter Irving (1882–1937) (compiler & editor) (1920). Queens Borough, New York City, 1910–1920; The Borough of Homes and Industry, a Descriptive and Illustrated Book Setting Forth Its Wonderful Growth and Development in Commerce, Industry and Homes During the Past Ten Years, 1910 to 1920; A Prediction of Even Greater Growth During the Next Ten Years, 1920 to 1930; And a Statement of Its Many Advantages, Attractions and Possibilities as a Section Wherein to Live, to Work and to Succeed. Chamber of Commerce of the Borough of Queens (publisher). Long Island Star Publishing Company (printer).  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 20012286-{{{3}}}
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  26. ^ (July 10, 2009) "Beaches in Queens – The Beaches of the Rockaways, and the One in Long Island City". 
    1. "Rockaway Beach and Boardwalk"
    2. "Jacob Riis Beach"
    3. "Fort Tilden Beach"
    4. "Breezy Point Tip"
    5. "Water Taxi Beach, Long Island City"
  27. ^ (May 28, 2011) "NYC Beaches 2011 – Summer Beach Season Kicks Off". 
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Climatological Report (Annual): LaGuardia NY". National Weather Service. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  29. ^ a b "Climatological Report (Annual): LaGuardia NY". National Weather Service. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  30. ^ (April 10, 2014) "Join the Great Gatsby: Chinese Real Estate Buyers Fan Out to Long Island’s North Shore".  Template:EBSCO.
  31. ^ (2002) "Beyond Chinatown: Dual Immigration and the Chinese Population of Metropolitan New York City". Middle States Geographer 35: 110–119.  ISSN 1067-2230.
  32. ^ 2011 borough population estimates are taken from the annual database of county population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, specifically this Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for New York state's counties, Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties of New York: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, retrieved on May 13, 2012
  33. ^ County and City Data Book:2007 (U.S. Census Bureau), Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008. New York County (Manhattan) was the nation's densest-populated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and San Francisco, California.
  34. ^ American Fact Finder (U.S. Census Bureau): New York by County - Table GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, retrieved on February 6, 2009
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  36. ^ From 15% sample
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  41. ^ "Past Queens Poet Laureates". Office of the Queens Borough President – Poet Laureates. 2019. 
  42. ^ (September 6, 2011) "Best Black Arts & Culture in Queens 2011" (column) "Six Reasons to Love Queens". 
  43. ^ Lonely Planet (December 10, 2014). "Best in the US 2015". 
  44. ^ NY City Lens; Uwimana, Solange (April 24, 2015). "Sutphin Boulevard: The Next Tourist Hot Spot?" (in en-US). Produced by students at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. 
  45. ^ TripSavvy (formerly (January 2, 2012). "Eating Out: Guide to Restaurants and Dining in Queens, NY" (column under the same title that ran from about 2006 to about 2016). 
  46. ^ Menus from the United States. "Queens". Harley J. Spiller Collection, University of Toronto Scarborough, Scarborough Library. 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2021.  (Harley J. Spiller Collection at Internet Archive) ( Harley J. Spiller Collection. at the Scarborough Library ).

       The Harley J. Spiller collection is composed of some 10,000 items – menus, business cards, restaurant matchbooks, and a variety of objects related to Chinese cookery. The majority of the menus document Chinese cuisine of restaurants in New York State. The collection, however, also includes other menus from the United States, Canada, and elsewhere.
       The Queens collection features single sheet and trifold menus – table placement and takeout – for Chinese (Cantonese, Hong Kong American, Hunan, Mandarin, Szechuan), Filipino, Japanese, Malaysian, Korean, Indonesian, Nepalese, Singaporean, Taiwanese, Thai, Vietnamese, Bangladeshi, Indian, Middle Eastern, Mughlai, Tibetan, Pakistan, Turkish, Brazilian, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Mexican, Peruvian, Caribbean, Italian, French, Spanish, American, Mediterranean, and various Seafood cuisine.

       Menus are from (in alphabetical order) Astoria, Bayside (including Oakland Gardens), College Point, Corona, Elmhurst, Flushing, Forest Hills, Fresh Meadows, Glendale, Jackson Heights, Jamaica, Little Neck, Long Island City, Maspeth, Middle Village, Rego Park, Ridgewood, Riverdale (in The Bronx), Rockaway, Rockaway Park, Sunnyside, and Woodside.
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  47. ^ (March 11, 2019) "Citing Its Diversity and Culture, NYC Was Voted Best City in the World in New Global Survey". TimeOut. 
    "Just look at the Queens Night Market, which began in the summer of 2015 as a collection of 40 vendors serving authentic international cuisine in Flushing Meadows Corona Park. Since then, it's steadily attracted more and more attendees and, last year averaged 10,000 people a night. Those thousands of New Yorkers weren't just hungry for new food, but for new points-of-view. 'When I first started, it was all about how can we attract people with an event that's as affordable and diverse as possible,' says Night Market founder John Wang. 'We've now been able to represent over 85 countries, and I'm constantly hearing examples of people branching out and trying things they've never heard of before."
  48. ^ a b c (December 2013) "An Economic Snapshot of Queens". 
  49. ^ The Open Book: Celebrating 40 Years of America's Grand Slam. United States Tennis Association & Triumph Books (publisher). 2008. p. 14.  ISBN 978-1-6007-8157-5; OCLC 213446843, OCLC 1048021596.
    "Moving the home of the US Open in 1978 across the borough of Queens, from the serene surroundings of Forest Hills to the 46.5 cement acres [188,000 m2; 2,030,000 sq ft; 18.8 ha] of Flushing Meadows, further expanded the US Open's ability to deliver world-class tennis and star-studded entertainment to the masses. Indeed, the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center (the world's largest public tennis facility when not hosting tournament tennis) and its centerpiece, Arthur Ashe Stadium (the world's largest tennis stadium), have enabled the US Open to become the world's best-attended annual sporting event, with nearly three-quarters of a million fans on-site each year."
  50. ^ 6sqft; Schulz, Dana (September 1, 2015). "A History of the US Open in New York: From the West Side Tennis Club to Arthur Ashe Stadium". Chelsea, Manhattan:, LLC (a real estate listing site, founded 1994) (publisher); Daniel Levy, President. 
  51. ^ Leip, David G. (born 1970). "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Ithaca, New York: Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, LLC (a New York entity).  OCLC 439540511.
  52. ^ Queens District Attorney; [ Updated January 6, 2020 ]. "Melinda Katz, District Attorney" ( 
  53. ^ Venugopal, Arun (June 28, 2019). "Why Queens Is the Center of the Nation's Progressive Movement" (in en). WNYC. 
    "Previously known to outsiders as Brooklyn's more-diverse, less-hip neighbor, a vast landscape of ethnic eateries, Queens has emerged as the capitol of the nation's progressive movement."
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h "New York Senators, Representatives, and Congressional District Maps". May 21, 2018. 
  55. ^ Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) (publisher) (2003). "Engaging Community Colleges – National Benchmarks of Quality – 2003 Findings". p. 12.  OCLC 1064663491.
    Of the four categories, (i) Extra-Large Colleges (15,000 or more students), (ii) Large Colleges (8,000–14,999 students), (iii) Medium Colleges (4,500–7,999 students), and (iv) Small Colleges (4,499 or fewer students), LaGuardia Community College was in the top three of Large Colleges.
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    "According to recent census estimates, almost 1.4 million households in New York City own a car compared to 3.1 million total households." ... "Manhattan, where only 22 percent of households own a car, while ownership is highest in Staten Island where cars are owned by 83 percent of all households. Queens (62 percent) is also above the city average, while the Bronx (40 percent) and Brooklyn (44 percent) look more like the city as a whole."
  57. ^ (June 15, 2019) "New York City Flexes Again, Extending Cap on Uber and Lyft" – "Officials want to extend the city's limit on the number of for-hire vehicles, and may consider a congestion charge". Wired. 
  58. ^ Martin, Elliot William, PhD; Stocker, Adam; Nichols, Aqshems M.; Shaheen, Susan Alison, PhD. "Roundtrip Carsharing in New York City: An Evaluation of a Pilot Program and System Impacts". UC Berkeley, Institute of Transportation Studies (ITS), Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC).  doi:10.7922/G2R49P23; eScholarship 5kb1r71v (permalink); OCLC 1249955145.
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  1. ^ Business Insider; Lubin, Gus (February 15, 2017). "Queens Has More Languages Than Anywhere in the World – Here's Where They're Found". 
  2. ^ Guardian US, The; Ngu, Sarah (August 13, 2020). "'Not What It Used to Be': In New York, Flushing’s Asian Residents Brace Against Gentrification" (in en-US) (US ed.). 
    "The three developers have stressed in public hearings that they are not outsiders to Flushing, which is 69% Asian. 'They’ve been here, they live here, they work here, they've invested here,' said Ross Moskowitz, an attorney for the developers at a different public hearing in February ... Tangram Tower, a luxury mixed-use development built by F&T. Last year, prices for two-bedroom apartments started at $1.15m ... The influx of transnational capital and rise of luxury developments in Flushing has displaced longtime immigrant residents and small business owners, as well as disrupted its cultural and culinary landscape. These changes follow the familiar script of gentrification, but with a change of actors: it is Chinese American developers and wealthy Chinese immigrants who are gentrifying this working-class neighborhood, which is majority Chinese."
  3. ^ New York Times, The; Shaman, Diana (February 8, 2004). ""If You're Thinking of Living In ... " (series) "Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel". p. 5 (section 11).  Template:ProQuest (hardcopy; US Newsstream); Template:ProQuest (online; US Newsstream).
  4. ^ New York Times, The; Hughes, C. J. (November 17, 2011). "Enticing Renters To Cross the Bridge (More Rentals-Planned in Long Island City)". p. 2 (section RE).  Template:ProQuest (hardcopy; US Newsstream); Template:ProQuest (online; US Newsstream).
  5. ^ New York Times, The; Lippincott, Erin Elisa (January 27, 2002). "Neighborhood Report – Kew Gardens – A Borough President's Goal: Dethroning the Queen of Queens". 151. p. 8 (section 14).  Template:ProQuest (hardcopy; US Newsstream); Template:ProQuest (online; US Newsstream) ( permalink. – via TimesMachine ).
  6. ^ New York Times, The (February 25, 1872). "The Queens County Court-House Question – A New Building to be Erected at Mineola". 21. p. 4 (columns 6 & 7).  ( permalink. – via TimesMachine ).
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  9. ^ a b Newsday; Mohan, Geoffrey A. (born 1962), Staff Writer (March 29, 1998). "Long Island, Our History: Eastern Factions of Queens Win the Fight to Separate After Six Decades of Wrangling – Nassau's Difficult Birth" (in en-US). Melville, New York: Newsday Media.,0,7026626.story?page=4. "North Hempstead, Oyster Bay and the rest of Hempstead were excluded from the vote." 
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  12. ^ New York Times, The (September 13, 1894). "Of Interest to Politicians" (in en-US). 63. p. 9 (column 6).  (permalink).
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  15. ^ New York Times, The (November 8, 1894). "Greater New-York in Doubt – The City Vote Is for It and Brooklyn Is Uncertain" (in en-US). 64. p. 1 (column 3).  (permalink) ( also accessible via ).

    "The increase in area and population that New-York will acquire if consolidation becomes a fact will become evident by a glance at the following table ... "

    Template:Hanging indent 38.85 1,801,739
    Template:Hanging indent 66.39 992,364
    Template:Hanging indent 57.19 53,452
    Template:Hanging indent 20.24 18,182
    Queens County:
    Template:Hanging indent 29.65 19,803
    Template:Hanging indent 17.86 17,756
    Template:Hanging indent 33.50 14,441
    Template:Hanging indent 7.14 30,506
    Template:Hanging indent 21.32 17,549
    Template:Hanging indent
    Template:Hanging indent 317.77   2,965,792
    "The townships in Queens County that are to be included in the Greater New-York have not been heard from yet ... "
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  28. ^ Bloomberg News; Hymowitz, Carol (October 27, 2014). "One Percenters Drop Six Figures at Long Island Mall". 
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    "How, they wondered, could Queens have grown by only one-tenth of 1 percent since 2000? How, even with a surge in foreclosures, could the number of vacant apartments have soared by nearly 60 percent in Queens and by 66 percent in Brooklyn? ... Often, though, owners of illegally divided houses are reluctant to disclose the number of tenants, who tend to include people who are in the country illegally and are leery of providing any information to the government."
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  51. ^ New York Observer; Jorgensen, Jillian (February 4, 2016). "A Streetcar Named Independence: De Blasio Invests in Non-MTA Transit" (in en-US). 
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    "Brody, who grew up in Woodhaven and Zarobinski [Thomas R. Zarobinski; born 1971], a native of Rego Park, attended the Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School for Performing Arts together, where Brody studied acting and Zarobinski studied drawing."
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    "Neither the outpouring of affection from an adoring public nor the love he finally found after four failed marriages could make up for the neglect and physical abuse he suffered as a child growing up in South Jamaica, Queens."
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    3. Template:Hanging indent
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    5. Template:Hanging indent
    "The 1777 New York State Constitution, Article XXXVI, confirmed land grants and municipal charters granted by the English Crown prior to October 14, 1775. Chapter 64 of the Laws of 1788 organized the state into towns and cities." ... "The basic composition of the counties was set in 1788 when the State Legislature divided all of the counties then existing into towns. Towns, of course, were of earlier origin, but in that year they acquired a new legal status as components of the counties."
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  3. ^ a b c "U.S. Census Data – American Community Survey – Selected Characteristics of the Native and Foreign-Born Populations – 2019: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Data Profiles" (data platform: Center for Enterprise Dissemination Services and Consumer Innovation). U.S. Census Bureau. 
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  4. ^ a b (April 29, 2014) "The 5 U.S. Counties Where Racial Diversity Is Highest—and Lowest" (in en-US). The Atlantic. 
  5. ^ a b (July 4, 2019) "Where America's Diversity Is Increasing the Fastest". Axios.  Template:ProQuest (US Newsstream database).
  6. ^ Gibson, Campbell J. (born 1942) (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". Working Paper Number POP-WP027. U.S. Census Bureau.  OCLC 1253676076.
  7. ^ 2010 Census. "U.S. Gazetteer Files" (New York State, population by county; showing geographic coordinateslongitude and latitude). U.S. Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. 
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". U.S. Census Bureau. 
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  11. ^ (The Indianapolis Star). "2020 Decennial Census – How Many People Live in Queens County, New York?". 
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  13. ^ a b c Gibson, Campbell J. (born 1942); Jung, Kay (September 1, 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race (1790 to 1990) and by Hispanic origin (1970 to 1990) for Large Cities and Urban Places". Working Paper Number POP-WP056. Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau.  OCLC 73804741, OCLC 50821504, Template:OCLC search link.
  14. ^ Business Wire (July 23, 2001). "Claritas Study Ranks Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Counties Nationwide; Analysis Shows California Leads Nation in Diversity Among Counties of 100,000-Plus Population". Retrieved July 29, 2008.  Template:ProQuest (US Newsstream database).
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  15. ^ "U.S. Census Data – American Community Survey – Language Spoken at Home – 2019: American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Data Profiles" (data platform: Center for Enterprise Dissemination Services and Consumer Innovation). U.S. Census Bureau. 
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  16. ^ a b c "U.S. Census 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  17. ^ "Selected Population Profile in the United States - 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Queens County, New York Asian Indian Alone". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  18. ^ "Profile of New York City's Pakistani Americans". Asian American Federation of New York. 2019. 
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  19. ^ Quick Demographic Facts for Queens Library Service Areas. Queens Borough Public Library, Programs and Services Department. 2005.  ISBN 0-9645-3375-8; OCLC 69186196OCLC Classify 70698782.
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  1. ^ National Park Service. "National Parks of New York Harbor – Fact Sheet: Gateway NRA – Jamaica Bay Unit". 
  2. ^ "History of Afrikan Poetry Theatre" ( The Afrikan Poetry Theatre. 
  3. ^ Black Spectrum Theater Company (December 11, 2010). "About" ( Black Spectrum Theater Company. 
  4. ^; Kuban, Adam (October 22, 2014). "Must-See Astoria: 12 Great Things to See and Do". NYC & Company. 
  5. ^ Citi Field. "By the Numbers". 
  6. ^ "Aqueduct Racetrack General Information". Aqueduct Racetrack. 
  7. ^ "Queens Supreme Court". October 13, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Earth Day: Declaring On-Street Carshare 'An Unqualified Success,' DOT Announces Permanent Expansion of Pilot" (Press Release #21-016). New York City Department of Transportation. April 22, 2021. 
  9. ^ "Carshare Parking Pilot Program – Final Report". April 2021. 
  10. ^ "NYC DOT Carshare Pilot". New York City Department of Transportation. April 2021. 
  11. ^ Zhen, Tracy (2020). "Zipcar Impact Report" ← webpage link (pdf link). Boston: Zipcar. p. 12. 
  12. ^ Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (2016). "About LaGuardia". 
  13. ^ "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 21, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018. 
  14. ^ MTA. "Long Island Rail Road - General Information". 
  15. ^ Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (2016). "AirTrain JFK". 
  16. ^ MTA (April 14, 2020). "Subway and Bus Facts 2019". 
  17. ^ Template:Cite NYC bus map
  18. ^ Routes and Schedules: "New York", "New Jersey", "Massachusetts", "Rhode Island" ( article SeaStreak. 
  19. ^ "NYC Ferry" (route map). NYC Ferry, Hornblower Cruises (publisher). August 23, 2021. 
  20. ^ MTA Bridges and Tunnels (publisher) (n.d.). "Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge". 
    "In 1939 the New York City Parkway Authority built the Cross Bay Bridge and Parkway, along with beach improvements in the Rockaways."
  21. ^ MTA Bridges and Tunnels (publisher) (n.d.). "Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge". 
    "The Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge was opened by the Marine Parkway Authority in 1937 to provide access to the Rockaway Peninsula, which previously could be reached only by ferry or by a circuitous route around the eastern end of Jamaica Bay."
  22. ^ "Nadia Ali" → "Biography". 
    "Born in Libya to Pakistani parents, Nadia Ali grew up in Queens, New York"
  23. ^ National Park Service (March 31, 2017). "Sagamore Hill National Historic Site". 

General references[]

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  • (2015) "Evolving Ethnic Settlements in Queens: Historical and Current Forces Reshaping Human Geography". Focus on Geography 58 (1): 11–26.  doi:10.1111/foge.12045; ISSN 1949-8535, ISSN 1549-4934 (publication); Template:EBSCO (article); OCLC 5735481287 (article).
  • (October 2004) "From Exclusionary Covenant to Ethnic Hyperdiversity in Jackson Heights, Queens". Geographical Review 94 (4): 462–483.  Journal → ISSN 0016-7428, Template:EISSN; Article → doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2004.tb00183.x; JSTOR 30034291; Template:ProQuest (Research Library database); OCLC 211830189.

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  • Hazelton, Henry "Harry" Isham (1867–1938) (1925). [[[:Template:GBurl]] The Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens Counties of Nassau and Suffolk Long Island, New York, 1609–1924] (7 volumes). Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc.. Template:GBurl.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 25010750-{{{3}}}
OCLC 498971362, Template:OCLC search link, Template:OCLC search link.
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  • (in en-US) History of Queens County, New York: With Illustrations, Portraits, and Sketches of Prominent Families and Individuals. New York: W.W. Munsell & Co. → William Watkins Munsell; 1850–1919. 1882. Retrieved September 7, 2021.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 01014233-{{{3}}}
OCLC 4819282.
    1. Via HathiTrust (Columbia University). 
    2. Via Internet Archive (Columbia University). 
  • Onderdonk, Henry, Jr. (1804–1886) (1846) (in en-US). Documents and Letters Intended to Illustrate the Revolutionary Incidents of Queens County – With Connecting Narratives, Explanatory Notes, and Additions. New-York: Leavitt, Trow and Company (printer). Retrieved September 21, 2021.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 01014234-{{{3}}}
OCLC 2860745.
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  • Onderdonk, Henry, Jr. (1804–1886) (1865) (in en-US). Queens County in Olden Times: Being a Supplement to the Several Histories Thereof. Jamaica, New York: Charles Welling (printer). Retrieved September 21, 2021.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 01014235-{{{3}}}
OCLC 1194221823.
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Items extracted from newspapers and other sources, arranged chronologically, 1639–1832.
  • Riker, James, Jr. (1822–1889) (1852) (in en-US). The Annals of Newtown, in Queens County, New-York: Containing Its History From Its First Settlement, Together With Many Interesting Facts Concerning the Adjacent Towns; Also, a Particular Account of Numerous Long Island Families Now Spread Over This and Various Other States of the Union. New York: D. Fanshaw → Daniel Fanshaw (1788–1860). Retrieved September 4, 2021.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 01014941-{{{3}}}
OCLC 1264039133, Template:OCLC search link.
    1. Via Internet Archive (Columbia University). 
    2. [[[:Template:GBurl]] Google Books (Princeton University)]. Template:GBurl. 
  • Skal, George Hugo August Eugen von (1854–1924) (author); Compiled by F.T. Smiley Publishing Co. (1908) (in en-US). [[[:Template:GBurl]] Illustrated History of the Borough of Queens, New York City]. New York: F. T. Smiley Publishing Co. → Frederick Thomas Smiley (1857–1910); Jerome Chester Smiley (1882–1968); George W. Flaacke. Template:GBurl. → also accessible via Internet Archive (Library of Congress).  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 10008903-{{{3}}}
OCLC 5883592.
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  • USNY (1916). A List of Books Relating to the History of the State of New York (reprinted from the 12th Annual Report of the State Department of Education). Albany: University of the State of New York, State Department of Education, School Libraries Division.  LCCN e16001026; OCLC 1011459.
    1. [[[:Template:GBurl]] Via Google Books (Harvard)]. Template:GBurl. 
    2. [[[:Template:GBurl]] Via Google Books (UC Berkeley)]. Template:GBurl. 
    3. Via HathiTrust (Harvard). 
    4. Via HathiTrust (UC Berkeley).$b728190&view=1up&seq=5. 
    5. Via HathiTrust (Cornell). 
    6. Via Internet Archive (Cornell). 

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  • Copquin, Claudia Gryvatz (born 1961) (2007). The Neighborhoods of Queens (guide to 99 neighborhoods). Yale University Press. Retrieved September 21, 2021 – via Google Books.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 2007013716-{{{3}}}
(1st ed.; 2007); ISBN 978-0-3001-1299-3 (2007); ISBN 978-0-3001-5133-6, ISBN 978-0-3001-5005-6; OCLC 262432302.
    1. [[[:Template:GBurl]] Via Google Books] (limited preview). Template:GBurl. 
  • Glascock, Mary A. (1977). An Annotated Bibliography of the History of Queens County (218 pages). Queens College, City University of New York.  OCLC 10188022.
  • Lieberman, Janet Elaine, PhD (Template:Italic correction Janet Elaine Rubensohn; 1921–2019); Lieberman, Richard Kenneth, PhD (born 1947) (1983). City Limits: A Social History of Queens (the two authors are not related). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company (covers the 1870s to the 1930s).  ISBN 0-8403-3150-9; OCLC 10777703.
"Based on the work of the Community History Program at Fiorello H. LaGuardia Community College."

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  • Helmreich, William Benno, PhD (1945–2020) (2020). The Queens Nobody Knows – An Urban Walking Guide. Princeton University Press. Retrieved September 23, 2021 – via Google Books.  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 2019058691-{{{3}}}
(hardback), LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 2019058692-{{{3}}}
(ebook); ISBN 978-0-6911-6688-9 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-6912-0002-6 (ebook); OCLC 1135915992.
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ISBN 0-3001-1465-6; OCLC 1088488960.
  • Kadinsky, Sergey (March 14, 2016). Hidden Waters of New York City: A History and Guide to 101 Forgotten Lakes, Ponds, Creeks, and Streams in the Five Boroughs. Woodstock, Vermont: The Countryman Press (the author, among other things, has been a contributor to Forgotten NY).  LCCNWp globe tiny.gif 2015041163-{{{3}}}
ISBN 978-1-5815-7355-8; OCLC 929863403.
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ISBN 1-4671-2065-0; OCLC 855044557.
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