Main Births etc

—  Metropolis  —
Orchid Medical Centre.jpg
MTI (SAIL) Doranda, Ranchi,Jharkhand - panoramio (6).jpg99px
Hindpiri, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India - panoramio (7).jpg
|250px|none|alt=|From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .]]From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
Nickname(s): City of waterfalls

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[[File:Template:Location map India Jharkhand|6x6px|Ranchi|link=|alt=]]
Location in Jharkhand
Country India
State Jharkhand
District Ranchi
Established 1833
 • Body Ranchi Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Asha Lakra (BJP)
 • Deputy mayor Sanjeev Vijayvargiya
 • Metropolis 175.12 km2 (67.61 sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi)
Elevation 651 m (2,136 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Metropolis 1,073,427
 • Rank 25th
 • Density 6,100/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[4] 1,456,528
 • Official Hindi, English
 • Regional Nagpuri
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 834001(83 xxxx)
Telephone code 0651
Vehicle registration JH-01 (earlier BR 14)
Sex ratio(per 1000 male) 950
Literacy 87.68%

Ranchi ( /ˈrɑːni/ About this sound pronunciation ) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand.[5] Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement,[6] which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[7]

Ranchi city from a hill


According to one popular tale, Captain choose "Archi" a Oraon tribal village as head quarter. Archi means Bamboo forest in local Nagpuri dialect. The British inadvertently named "Archi" as "Ranchi".[8][9][10]

In his book The Mundas and Their Country, anthropologist Sarat Chandra Roy writes that the name of the city is derived from the Mundari word aranchi or "short stick" used in driving cattle.[11]

According to another local story, the name of Ranchi comes from local bird named "Rici" which was mostly found in the Pahari Mandir premise. Up to 1927, the place was known as Rachi.[12] Rici is name for Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in Mundari, the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is also known as Rici Buru (रिचि बुरु) - the hill of the kites,[13] and the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site.


The early evidence of use of several iron slag, pot sheds, iron tools found in Chota Nagpur region around 1400 BCE.[14] Magadha Empire exercised indirect control over the territory, which lasted until the reign of the Ashoka. Armies of Samudra Gupta passed through the region on their expedition to the Deccan. Nagvanshi king Raja Pratap Rai chose Chutia as his capital which is now a place in Ranchi. Few ruins of Chutia trace back to 2nd Century CE.[8][15][16][17] With the expansion of the Mughal Empire, the sovereign status of the Nagvanshi dynasty was technically affected, but they continued to rule and administer independently. King of Barkagarh Jagannathpur Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo built Jagannath Temple in 1691.[18][19]

Jagannath Temple in 19th century

After Battle of Buxar, Nagvanshi became vassal of East India Company. British reduced Nagvanshi rulers to Jamindar in 1817.[20] In 1833, Captain Wilkinson established head quarter of the South-West Frontier agency in the village of Kishunpur, which he renamed into Ranchi after the hamlet of Purana Ranchi located at the foot of the Ranchi Hill.[21][22] Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, Pandey Ganpat Rai, Tikait Umrao Singh and Sheikh Bhikhari played a pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[23][24] British made Ranchi as municipality in 1869 and Ranchi was first termed as a town in the census of 1872.[25] Freedom fighter Birsa Munda died in the Ranchi jail on 9 June 1900.[26] In 1912, Jyotirindranath Tagore, the eldest brother of Rabindranath Tagore, settled in Ranchi. Tagore Hill, where his house was located, has been named after him in remembrance.[27] The last ruler of the Nagvanshi dynasty was Lal Chintamani Sharan Nath Shahdeo (1931–2014).[20]

After Independence, Ranchi saw large increase in its population. Its population rate of growth was 3.5% in 1901 to 1941, which increased to 14% in 1951–1971.[25] This was because of increased industrial and educational institutions being set up, as well as the arrival of post-Partition refugees. Ranchi became an 'administrative-cum-industrial' town in 1958 when Heavy Engineering Corporation was set up.[25] The succeeding years saw Ranchi becoming the headquarter for the following: Steel Authority of India Ltd., National Coal Development Corporation and Central Coalfields Ltd.[21] The headquarters of Central Coalfields Ltd is still in Ranchi. The city remained the summer capital of Bihar till the creation of Jharkhand in 2000, when Ranchi became the capital of the new state.[28]


Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36, 85.33 near to the Tropic of Cancer. The city covers an area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi)[1] and its average elevation is 651 m above sea level.

Ranchi is surrounded by lush agriculturally fertile land.

Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.

Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.[29]


Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas (Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.[30]

Climate data for Ranchi (1981–2010, extremes 1951–2009)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.6
Average high °C (°F) 23.6
Average low °C (°F) 9.8
Record low °C (°F) 3.2
Rainfall mm (inches) 16.7
Avg. rainy days 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.2 4.6 10.9 16.3 16.9 12.4 4.0 1.0 1.0 75.2
humidity 47 40 31 29 39 64 82 83 78 65 54 50 55
Source: India Meteorological Department[31][32]



Ranchi population 
Source: Census of India

As of 2011 India census,[33] Ranchi Municipal Corporation has a population of 1,073,427, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 52.1% of the population and females 47.9%.[34] Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 87.68%.

The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.[35]


Hindi is the official language of Ranchi. The populace of Ranchi converse mainly in Hindi. Nagpuri is regional language of the region. A number of other dialects and language spoken are Khortha and Kurmali. Tribal language Mundari is also spoken by the Munda tribe.


Religion in Ranchi
Religion Percent
Sarnaism or Animism

Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi followed by 64.31% of the population. Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that did not state a religion are 0.35%, and others are 9.72%.

Governance and Politics[]

Civic Administration[]

The municipal corporation covers an area of 175 sq km and is divided into 55 administrative wards, each represented by an elected councilor.[1]

At the time of the creation of the state of Jharkhand in 2000, the Bihar Municipal Act, 1922 was adapted as the Jharkhand Municipal Act, 2000 to govern all ULBs in the new state. Ranchi Municipal Corporation was governed by its own municipal act, the Ranchi Municipal Corporation Act, 2001. With the enactment of the Jharkhand Municipal Act 2011, these two ceased to be in effect and the 2011 became the only governing legislature for all city governments in Jharkhand.[36]

Under section 26 of the Jharkhand Municipal Act, 2011, the positions of mayor and deputy mayor are elected directly i.e. the position holders are voted in by the people themselves.[37] The last municipal election was in 2018 with a voter turnout of 49.3%, up from 38% in the last election in 2013.[38][39] Asha Lakra and Vijayawargia – both from the Bharatiya Janta Party – won the mayoral and deputy mayoral seats.[40] The 2018 municipal election was the first time the mayoral and deputy mayoral candidates in Jharkhand could use political party symbols, while the candidates for councilor seats continued to use symbols allotted to them by the Jharkhand State Election Commission.[40][41] The next municipal election will take place in 2023.[42]

The Jharkhand Municipal Act, 2011 mandates the establishment of ward committees for each ward in the municipality.[37] Though ward committees have been formed in Ranchi, they are not active.[43]

Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha Constituencies[]

Ranchi city is part of the Ranchi Lok Sabha Constituency. Sanjay Seth won the seat in the 2019 General Election and represents this constituency at the Lok Sabha as a Member of Parliament.[44] Ranchi is part of the Ranchi Vidhan Sabha Constituency and the representative Member of Legislative Assembly at the Jharkhand Vidhan Sabha is Chandreshwar Prasad Singh. Singh has held the post since 2000, with the last Jharkhand Vidhan Sabha election being in 2019. Both politicians belong to the Bharatiya Janata Party.[45]

Public Utilities[]

The various infrastructure and civic services demands of the city are met by different entities, including Ranchi Municipal Corporation, state government departments, and parastatal organisations. The Ranchi Master Plan 2037 was created by a private consultant firm under the clientship of the Ranchi Municipal Corporation, Urban Development and Housing Department, and Ranchi Regional Development Authority.[46][47] Roads in Ranchi are developed and maintained by the municipal corporation, Jharkhand Government, Ranchi Regional Development Authority, and National Highways Authority of India.[48] The Water Supply Section of the municipal corporation is responsible for issuing water connections, maintaining hand pumps in wards, collecting water usage charges and fines, whereas the state government Drinking Water Supply and Sewerage Department supplies the water.[49][50] The Health Department of the corporation is responsible for the Solid Waste Management of the city. RMC operates buses in the city and has outsourced this to a private agency.[51]


Lalpur - A major financial and commercial neighbourhood hub district of the city Ranchi.

File:Software Technology Parks of India, Ranchi.png

Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) at Namkum, Ranchi.

File:Central coalfield headquarter Ranchi.png

Central Coalfields Headquarters in Ranchi

File:OFFCO Park.png


Ranchi is one of the major industrial cities of Eastern India and located in the region called 'Ruhr of India' (Chota Nagpur) making it an ideal place for mineral based industries.

Ranchi have presence of many well known govt. and private organisations in the vicinity of city. SAIL-R&D, MECON.Ltd, Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (Marine Diesel Engine Project), Central Coalfields, CMPDI.Ltd, Subarnarekha Hydel Project (JSEB), Usha Martin.Ltd (Wire Rope Division),[52] DVC, STPI-Ranchi,[53] Heavy Engineering Corp., Palriwal Industries, Pensol India, Waxpol Industries, Jharkhand Mega Food Park etc. are the prominent industries here.

The Federation of Jharkhand Chamber of Commerce & Industries (FJCCI),[54] ASSOCHAM, MSME-DI and JIADA[55] are major apex industrial bodies present here. JIADA consists many industrial areas in Ranchi, e.g. – Kokar, Tatisilwai, Namkum etc. are among them.

As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi is the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India followed by Mangalore and Mysore.[56] MECON Ltd Company has it's headquarters in Ranchi at Ashok Nagar. Jharkhand Industrial Area Development Associaton has it's office in Namkum. Central Coalfields also has it's headquarters in Ranchi.

Ranchi houses a number of companies. Along with Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Bokaro and Giridih it is one of the industrial hubs of the city. Here the following companies which are based in Ranchi and also headquartered in Ranchi itself only:

  • Mecon limited
  • Central Coalfields
  • Heavy Engineering Corporation
  • Central Mine Planning and Design Institute

Here main and major business district are

  • Lalpur, Ranchi
  • Hindpiri
  • Lower Bazaar
  • Upper Bazaar
  • Doranda

STPI Ranchi has setup it's branch at Namkum, Ranchi. It is usually an IT Park, which houses many IT companies. Here is planning to built more parks like this. OFFCO Park is the another park which is built here. It is also a large and famous business park.

Retail, Trade and Commerce[]

Lalpur is one of the business districts in the city and the state. This place houses several shopping malls. Whole Ranchi have several shopping malls which includes

  • Nucleus Shopping Mall
  • Mall E Decor
  • JD Hi-Street Mall
  • Ranchi Central Mall
  • Laxmi Tower
  • Mall of Ranchi
  • City Center (Centre) Mall
  • Big Mall
  • Spring City Mall
  • Arakshan Shopping Mall
  • Shelter Mall
  • Ranchi Green City
  • Artic Mall
  • City Center or City Centre
  • City Mall
  • Galaxia Mall

There is many other upcoming shopping malls and commercial projects


  • Sadar Hospital, Ranchi (now Sadar Medical College and Hospital)
  • Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Central Instituteof Psychiatry, Kanke[57]
  • Medanta Hospital (formerly known as Apollo-Abdul Razzaque Ansari Memorial Weaver's Hospital)[58]
  • Bhagwan Mahavir Medica Superspecialty Hospital[59]
  • Santevita Hospital
  • Orchid Medical Centre
  • Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry & Allied Sciences (RINPAS)[60]


Ranchi is a centre for numerous sports activities, including cricket, hockey, football, and many others.[61] The 34th National Games were successfully held in Ranchi in February 2011.

File:Ranchi Rhinos Logo.jpg

Ranchi Rhinos field hockey team is based in the city

JSCA Cricket Stadium Entrance

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.[62]

The Ranchi franchise for Hockey India League was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named the Ranchi Rhinos.[63]

Sports teams[]

  • Ranchi Rays
  • Ranchi Rhinos

Stadiums in Ranchi[]

  • Jaipal Singh Stadium
  • JSCA International Cricket Stadium
  • Birsa Munda Hockey Stadium
  • Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium
  • Birsa Munda Football Stadium

Points of Interest[]

  • Bhagwan Birsa Biological Park, zoo[64]
  • Dassam Falls, one of the deadliest falls in India.
  • Getalsud Dam, also known as Rukka Dam built in 1971
  • Gossner Evangelical Lutheran Church, the oldest missionary organisation in eastern and northern India
  • Hundru Falls
  • Jagannath Temple, built by Thakur Ani Nath Shahdeo, Raja of Barkagarh Jagannathpur in 1691.
  • Jonha Falls, also known as Gautamdhara (the place dedicated to Gautam Buddha)
  • Kanke Dam, also known as Gonda Dam built in 1955
  • Rock Garden, built along Kanke Dam
  • Dewri Temple, temple dedicated to Goddess Durga
  • Nakshatra Van
  • Pahari Mandir, temple dedicated to Lord Shiva
  • Patratu valley
  • Ranchi Science Centre
  • Ratu Palace, capital of Nagvanshis of Chotanagpur.[65]
  • Sita Falls
  • Ranchi State Museum, state or art museum
  • St.Mary's Cathedral, oldest church of Ranchi built in 1847
  • Tagore Hill, the hangout place of Jyotindranath Tagore, brother of Rabindranath Tagore and have Ramkrishna Mission Ashram at its base.

People from Ranchi[]

  • Rajesh Chauhan, former Indian cricketer, born in Ranchi[66]
  • Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Ex-Captain of Indian Cricket Team, famous for winning the Cricket World Cup in 2011
  • Carl Haeberlin, German physician, born in Ranchi
  • Deepika Kumari, International Level Archer
  • Anjana Om Kashyap, Indian journalist and news presenter
  • Rajesh Jais, Actor
  • Alisha Singh, Dancer and choreographer
  • Peter Mansfield, British journalist and historian, was born in Ranchi
  • Vinay Pathak, actor schooled at Vikas Vidyalaya, Ranchi
  • Mukund Nayak, folk singer and dancer
  • Nandlal Nayak, folk artist and music composer
  • Deeba, Pakistani actress
  • Pat Reid MBE MC, escapee from Colditz Castle, born in Ranchi
  • Tapen Sen, Former Judge Calcutta High Court, Punjab & Haryana High Court and Jharkhand High Court
  • Telesphore Toppo, Cardinal-Archbishop of Ranchi in the Roman Catholic Church.

See also[]

  • List of cities in Jharkhand
  • 1967 Ranchi-Hatia riots
  • Ranchi district
  • Ranchi Junction
  • Ranchi Metropolitan Region
  • Portal.svgIndia portal


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