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Richard Henry Browne was born 1802 in Howrah, Bengal, India to William Browne (1762-1833) and Sophia Louisa Forbes (1781-1861) and died 16 May 1882 Mavisbank House, Lasswade, MidLothian, Scotland of unspecified causes.

Introduction

Richard Henry Browne died a very rich man at the age of 80 years. His estate in 1882 was worth £38,580, 3s, 5d[1], which according to the on-line Currency Converter at the National Archives, London was worth £1,863,808.05 in 2005[2]. His tragic end was to die as an inmate in an asylum for the insane[3][4].

In 1841, at the age of 39, Browne was described as a young Englishman of distinguished manner, slightly built, vivacious, soigne in dress, uniformly courteous of manner, a social celebrity of his day, "most refined of land agents". (This description was written from memory 45 years later in 1884[5] by the novelist Thomas Alexander Browne (1826–1915) who had known Richard Henry Browne from 1841 when Thomas Alexander Brown, as a 15 year old teenager, had arrived at Heidelberg after finishing his education at Sydney College[6]. (Please note that Thomas Alexander Browne was not a relative of Richard Henry Browne.)[7][8]

A young Englishman? He may have lived out the last half of his life in the United Kingdom, moving to London at the age of 45 in 1848, and dying near Edinburgh at the age of 80 in 1882, but he had not been born there. He had been born in India of an Irish-Catholic merchant father and a half-caste Catholic Anglo-Indian mother. He had family in the United Kingdom but his father's business during the years of his childhood was based in Calcutta where his parents and sisters lived, and where he and his brother spent their early childhood. He and his elder brother, John William Browne (1801-1834), were educated, at least during their teenage years, in England, turning them both into "young Englishman of distinguished manner". Together, in Oct 1818, at the ages of 16 & 17 respectively, and after completing their educations, they left London on the "Harriet" for Sydney (arriving there in Feb 1819)[9] where their parents were then living. This was only, however, after also completing a post-education "grand Continental tour" of Europe[10].

This "grand Continental tour" of Europe was to have a life-long influence on Richard Henry Browne. When he was selling land on the outskirts of Melbourne in early 1839 he became known as "Continental" Browne. This was because, as Thomas Alexander Browne related, Browne was very fond of retelling incidents of his "grand Continental tour", hence his nickname. After his naming of Heidelberg he also became known as "Heidelberg" Browne[11].

It is as a direct result of his time in Europe on his "grand Continental tour" that Heidelberg in Melbourne was named. The area had been known by the aboriginal name of Warringal, but, in early 1839, when Richard Henry Browne was selling land there as an agent for Thomas Walker (1804-1886)[12], he renamed it Heidelberg, after Heidelberg on the Neckar River in Germany. The sale, a champagne picnic, took place on section 3 of Thomas Walker's land on Mt Eagle, in the middle of the 313 acre[13] block of land that was to be purchased by Sylvester John Brown (c1790-1864) for just over £5 6s per acre, and that Sylvester John Brown was to call "Hartlands". In 1884, from his memory of what his father, Sylvester John Brown, had told him as an eye-witness of the occassion (Thomas was still studying at Sydney College[6]), Thomas Alexander Browne wrote: "I can see him now in the centre of a group of admiring friends, chiefly of the fair sex, standing on one of the heights which overlooked the meadows of the Yarra. 'There, my dear madam, permit me to direct your gaze. Do you not observe the silver thread of the river winding through that exquisite green valley ? it reminds me so vividly of the gliding Neckar, and alas ! (here a most telling sigh) of scenes, of friends loved and lost. I can fancy that I look at my ever-remembered, ever-regretted Heidelberg ! Those slopes rising from the farther river shore will be terraced vineyards; and these, where you can faintly discern the snow pinnacle on yon spur of the Australian Alps, I can imagine the grand outline of the Harz Mountains. It is, it shall be, Heidelberg ! Charles, open more champagne. We must christen this thrice-favored spot, on this trebly auspicious day, worthily, irrevocably!" "In some such fashion," Thomas Alexander Browne added, "Heidelberg was named, and, what was more to the purpose, sold."[14]

Another common theme throughout the life of Richard Henry Browne was his readiness to sign, and even organise, petitions.

First Time In New South Wales

Sydney, 1819-1822

In 1819 Richard Henry Browne and his brother John William Browne both sailed into Sydney in their late teens to be able to help their father in his business interests. These included their father's new pastoral interests, and his business trading as a merchant in both Calcutta and Sydney. Their father had immigrated to Sydney to live in 1816 on his ship the "Mary", and had brought their mother there to live in 1818. His father's business required frequent commuting between Sydney and Calcutta, and explains why the 2 teenagers were left in charge of the Macquarie Place merchant business in April 1819, just 2 months after they arrived.[15]

In these early years in New South Wales Richard Henry Browne and his brother were unsure of whether they wanted to settle permanently in the Colony. As a result on 1 Jul 1820 their father wrote to the Governor requesting a grant of land for each of his two boys to induce themn to settle in New South Wales[16]. With no land forthcoming, Richard Henry Browne continued to help his father with his business interests, especially his father's merchant business based in Macquarie Place, Sydney. This entailed his commutting to Calcutta, evidenced by a notice in the newspaper of 4 Nov 1820 stating "MR. R. H. BROWNE proceeding to Bengal (Calcutta) by an early Opportunity, requests Claims, to be presented at the Office of Mr. W. Browne, Macquarie-place."[17]

Before Mar 1822 Richard Henry Browne was back in Sydney. Whilst in Calcutta he had looked for business interests of his own, and arranged to become an agent for the sale of cargos in Sydney. Earlier in 1822 his father had sold his merchant business in Macquarie Place to fellow merchant Thomas Icely (1797–1874)[18]. In Mar 1822 Richard Henry Browne was working with Mr Icely as an agent for the sale of cargos from Calcutta for other businesses[19]. In this capacity, as an agent for the sale of cargos from Calcutta for other businesses, Richard Henry Browne sold some goods to the Government, which, on 1 Apr 1822 paid a bill on the treasury of £415, 8s to Richard Henry Browne[20] Having sold these goods Richard Henry Browne was planning to sail back to Calcutta, evidenced by a notices in the newspaper, the first on 3 May and the last on 7 Jun 1822, that stated "Mr. Richard Henry Browne, proceeding to Calcutta, requests Claims to be presented at Macquarie-place."[21]. He took work at Calcutta with the merchant firm Sheddon & Co[22]. He was not to return to New South Wales until 1824.

Richard Henry Browne's times in Calcutta during the period 1820 to 1824 allowed him to later describe himself in the 1881 Scotland census for Lasswade, MidLothian, as a "former East Indies merchant" (East Indies being the term popularly applied to India).

Second time in New South Wales, 1824-1838

Sydney, Illawarra & Bathurst, 1824-1836

In 1824 Richard Henry Browne decided to leave Calcutta and settle in New South Wales. After arriving in Sydney in Apr 1824 on the "Perseverence", he wrote to the Governor on 28 May stating that he had recently arrived from India with the intention to settle, and asking for a land grant. This resulted in the promise of a grant of 640 acres.[23] He was granted 600 acres at Illawarra at a quit rent of £4, 10s per annum starting 1st January 1831[24] on 4 Jun 1824, in the district where his father had been granted 3800 acres in 1823 to add to the land he already held of Appin.[25]

Richard Henry Browne's route from Calcutta to Sydney on the "Perserverance" in 1824 was a common one in its day, and can be partly traced through notices in newspapers. The "Perseverence" travelled from Calcutta, possibly to Madras, and then on to Mauritius. It is from Mauritius that the newspapers begin to record its journey. After Mauritius the ship "was compelled to put into Hobart Town, in want of water and provisions"[26], in early April 1824[27], and finally sailed on to Sydney in late April 1824[28], with "Mr. R.H. Browne" among the passengers "from the Mauritius"[29].

600 acres of land at Illawarra was not enough land on which to make a living grazing sheep and cattle. Richard Henry Browne therefore formed a pastural partnership with his paternal cousin Henry O'Brien (1793-1866), who in 1821 had received 3 convict labourers and 600 acres on the Bathurst plains[30]. In this capacity they together began to receive convict labourers, some examples of which follow:

  • In Jun 1824 Martin Graham from the "Isabella" (1818) was assigned to "Messrs H O'Brien and R H Browne, Illawarra", 1 of 12 convicts assigned to the district of Appin and distributed by his father W. Browne J.P. of Appin, who also assigned 1 of the 12 convicts to himself[31]. It was not uncommon for his father William Browne to assign convicts to himself, as in the previous month, April 1824, he had assigned to himself 1 of the 7 convicts available for the district of Appin in April who also happened to be a blacksmith[32].
  • In Jul 1824 Peter Coil from the "John Barry" (1821) and Henry Jackson from the "Countess of Harcourt" (1824) were assigned to "Messrs H O'Brien and R H Browne, Illawarra", 2 of 26 convicts assigned to the district of Appin and distributed by his father W. Browne J.P. of Appin, who also after returning a convict making him 1 of the 26 available for assignment in that month, and had then assigned a different convict to himself[33].
  • In Nov 1824 Peter Kelly from the "Dorothy" (1820) and William Watts from the "Guildford" (1824) were returned by "Messrs H O'Brien and R H Browne", 2 of 4 convicts returned in the district of Appin and redistributed by his father W. Browne J.P. of Appin[34].

The pasturage of animals at Bathurst also needed their attendance. Richard Henry Browne and his cousin Henry O'Brien therefore contacted the Government to request the use of more land (squatting) on which to pasture their animals. "Mssrs H O'Brien & R H Browne of Bathurst having made application for a Certificate to procur a Ticket of Occupation for the depasturage of 236 head of Horned Cattle...and 2640 Sheep...in the charge of the abovementioned Men, and others as Stockmen and Shepherds (Viz) William Burke and Matthew Flinn, Ticket of Leave Men". On 19 Oct 1824 they were to be certified to use a "spot of ground, name unknown" about 45 miles SSE from Bathurst, bounded on the South by a river[35]. This was communicated by letter on 5 Nov 1824 to R. Hy Browne, Bathurst. Richard Henry Browne was to be allowed temporary occupation of 4 square miles (2560 acres) at that exact described location. William Burke and Matthew Flinn were again mentioned. His cousin Henry O'Brien was not mentioned but it was understood by both the Government and Richard Henry Browne that the use of the land was for both himself and his cousin[36].

At this point in his life story Richard Henry Browne had become a prime example of the high level of mobility of persons within Australia (by land), around Australian (by sea), and around the world (by sea). At this point in his life story Richard Henry Browne had also become a prime example of the similtaneous identification of the same person by 2 or more different locations where they owned or controlled land. In 1824, as can be seen from the above, he was known similtaneously as R.H.Browne, Illawarra; and R.H.Browne, Bathurst. Later, in 1837/38, he was to become known similtaneously as R.H.Browne, Sydney; R.H.Browne, Yass; and R.H.Browne, Brackenbury. Then later, in 1840, he was to become known similtaneously as R.H.Browne, Melbourne; R.H.Browne, Geelong; and R.H.Browne, Heidelberg.

In 1826 Richard Henry Browne still had pastoral interests in the Bathurst district, as on 1st Feb R.H.Browne was made a member of the Bathurst Literary Society "at a Meeting of the Gentlemen of Bathurst"[37]. By 1832, however, he was based back in Sydney, while his cousin Henry O'Brien had moved his pastoral business to the Yass district[30]. In Jul 1832 R.H.Brown(sic), Sydney, had a convict labourer, David Hughes, assigned to him[38]. He then travelled to London for a period.

Sydney & Yass, 1837-1838

R.H.Brown(sic) left London on the "Royal George" on 20 Oct 1836 and landed back in Sydney on 13 Mar 1837[39] with imported goods to sell[40]. Then on 1 Jul 1837, R.H.Browne was appointed as Sydney agent for the newly formed Australian Association of Bengal at its first meeting in Calcutta[41]. He resigned this position soon after, and was no longer their agent by 30 Mar 1838 when the "Gaillardon", the first ship chartered by the Australian Association of Bengal, arrived at Sydney. The reason given for his earlier resignation was discussed at a Meeting in Calcutta of the Australian Association of Bengal on 2 Jul 1838, where it was stated: "Our agency at Sydney was addressed in the first instance to Mr. R. H. Browne, late of the firm of Sheddon and Co. of this place; but as that gentleman had no settled purpose of remaining in the colony, or at any rate residing at Sydney, our affairs passed into the hands of Messrs. Campbell and Co., of George-street, as provided for in our instructions."[22]

After arriving back in Sydney in Mar 1837 Richard Henry Browne visited his cousin Henry O'Brien at Henry's town residence in Upper Pitt Street, Sydney[30]. As a result he resuming his pastoral interests, this time on the Yass plains where his cousin Henry O'Brien, and now also his cousin Cornelius O'Brien (1796-1869), had their stations[30]. Richard Henry Browne took up a depasturing license on the Yass plains and called it Brackenbury[42]. In Dec 1837 R.H. Browne of Yass was made Commisioner of Crown Lands for the district[43]. In Feb 1838 R.H. Browne, Brackenbury, was presented in Sydney to the newly arrived Governor Sir George Gipps (1791-1847)[44][42]. In Mar 1838 R.H.Browne had 14 bales of wool included in a shipment to London on the "Alfred"[45]. Also prior to April 1838 R.H.Browne, Yass, signed an undertaking, together with other landholders of Yass (including his 2 O'Brien cousins), not to pay labourers in liquor.[46]

Meanwhile he continued some trading as a merchant in Sydney. For example on 13 Dec 1837 goods that R.H.Browne had imported from London arrived in Sydney on the "Juliet"[47], and on 21 Mar 1838 goods that R.H.Brown(sic) had imported from Canton had arrived in Hobart on the "Orwell"[48] before being transported on to Sydney.

Port Phillip (Victoria), 1839-1844

Heidelberg, 1839-1844

In May 1838, whilst he was still living in Yass, the seed was sown for a new chapter in Richard Henry Browne's life to begin. This was because in the NSW Government Gazette of 30 May 1838 was an advertisement for the sale of Government land between the Darebin Creek and the Yarra River at Melbourne. This Melbourne land was to be auctioned on Thursday 13 Sep 1838[49] at the George-street Market Building in Sydney.

On Thursday 13 Sep 1838 Richard Henry Browne attended the auction of Government land in Sydney and purchased 920 acres on the Yarra River for £1334 at today's Heidelberg in Melbourne[50]. 3 nearby allotments, totalling 3130 acres were bought speculatively by Thomas Walker (1804-1886) who planned to subdivide the allotments and place them up for sale. Walker was an investor and land speculator, well-known in Sydney business circles of the day. Richard Henry Browne had been a Commissioner of Crown Lands at Yass for less than 12 months, but this experience stood him in good stead, and arrangements were subsequently made for him to move to Melbourne and act as the land agent to sell Thomas Walker's blocks.[51]

10 blocks of land between the Darebin Creek and the Yarra River, Melbourne, in the parish of Kellbundoora, were put up for auction sale by the Government on Thursday 13 Sep 1838 at the George-street Market Building in Sydney. The blocks were sold to the following purchasers: Thomas Walker (1804-1886) purchased adjacent portions 1, 2 & 3 totalling 3130 acres, adjoining and west & south of the village reserve, which he planned to subdivide for resale; George Isaac Porter (1800-1848)[52] purchased non-adjacent portions 4 & 7 totalling 1570 acres, on which he settled; Richard Henry Browne purchased portion 6 totalling 920 acres, east of the village reserve with a very small section adjoining); Thomas Wills (1800-1872)[53] purchased portion 8 totalling 970 acres; Neil Campbell (1800-1882)[54] purchased portion 10 totalling 1035 acres; and Captain Sylvester John Brown, who owned the first steamer to work the waters of Port Phillip,[55] purchased portions 11 & 12 totalling 1876 acres. Not included in the sale of 13 Sep 1838 was 2 portions without water access, and the village reserve that at that time was known as Warringal, and did not begin to be sold until 1845.

The block of 920 acres that Browne purchased at the auction was described as follows: "BOURKE, Portion No. 6, 920, Nine hundred and twenty acres, more or less, parish of Keelbundoora; bounded on the west by the section line forming the east boundary of Portion No. 5, and of the Village Reserve, bearing north 140 chains; on the north by a section line forming part of the south boundary of Portion No. 8, containing 970 acres bearing east 80 chains; on the east by the section line forming the west boundary of Portion No. 7, containing 780 acres, bearing south 100 chains, and on the south by Yarra Yarra River. Price 5s. per acre", with the 5s per acre being a reserve price[49]. The price that Browne paid of £1334 was to £1, 9s per acre.

An imaginative description of the land sale of 13 Sep 1838 in Sydney was given in a 21 Feb 1840 advertisement for the sale of one of the landlocked blocks, portion 5, that had not been put up for auction sale on 13 Sep 1838. (The 2 portions without water access, the 2 landlocked portions, were not included in the sale of 13 Sep 1838 but were both sold later. Portion 5, 960 acres, was sold on 26 Feb 1840 to stock-and-station dealer James Watson (1811-1869)[56][57] and portion 9 was sold on 5 Feb 1840[58] to Neil McLean (1810-1858), a ship's captain.[49]) The imaginative description of the auction read as follows: "The competition for this Estate at the last Government Sale was the greatest that ever occurred in the sale of Crown Lands, and the silence which reigned amongst the assembled crowd while the most intelligent entered the lists to become possessed of it was truly characteristic and the moment the purchaser was declared, he received the congratulations of his friends."[59]

It is not difficult to understand why Richard Henry Browne would have been interested in purchasing some of the land between the Darebin Creek and the Yarra River at today's Heidelberg, as one of his cousin Henry O'Brien's acquaintances at Jugiong, near Yass, was Joseph Hawdon (1813–1871)[60]. Hawdon, late in 1836, was one of three men who drove a herd of cattle through the Darebin Creek area when they overlanded the cattle from Jugiong on the Murrumbidgee to Melbourne. Hawdon was to settle in Victoria but still travelled extensively. In 1838 Hawdon even secured a contract at £1200 per annum to carry the overland mail fortnightly between Melbourne and Yass, whence it was transfered to the mailman from Sydney, though he did not convey the mail himself instead using an employee. In late 1836, while driving the herd of cattle from Jugiong to Melbourne, Hawdon had seen that the area of land between the Darebin Creek and the Yarra River was prime agricultural and grazing land. Ironically Browne was later to sell two portions of the land at Heidelberg to Joseph Hawdon: the first 363 acres in 1839 as land agent for Thomas Walker; and in mid-1843[61] a second portion of about 279 acres being a section of his own 920 acres, land which was to become part of Hawdon's "Banyule Estate", and the section on which Hawdon was to build his Elizabethan-Gothic revival style mansion. (Now owned by the Victorian Government as an annex to the National Gallery was also one of Melbourne's oldest houses)[62][13][50].

The first thing that Browne did with the 920 acres of land that he purchased on 13 Sep 1838 was to have the block subdivided. He decided to apply to have his block subdivided into 4 portions which are said to have been 214 acres, 279 acres, 264 acres and 192 acres. (This adds to 949 acres so there is a mathematical problem with this division.) By 31 January 1839 the subdivision of the land that he had purchased had been finalised. He planned to settle on 1 of the portions, and to sell the other 3.

  • Before 10 Apr 1839 Browne had sold a "264" acre portion of his land to Arthur Hogue (1816-), a wealthy Melbourne merchant, who, like Richard Henry Browne, had been born in India (Calcutta) to a merchant father (Arthur Hogue (c1790-1828)). Arthur Hogue named his portion "Banyule" said to mean, "the hill" in the dialect of the Warringal Aborigines[63][64]. There is an interesting advertisement on page 3 of the Sydney newspaper "The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser" on 10 Apr 1839. It is for the auction sale on 1 May of most of 970 acre portion 8 that had been purchased by Thomas Wills at Sydney on 13 Sep 1838, being north of and adjoining "Mr R. H. Browne's 920 acres". Wills had subdivided portion 8 into 13 lots from 50 to 112 acres, and was selling 12 of them, at just over 920 acres. This advertisement "begs to state that they (the blocks to be auctioned) adjoin tbe splendid Estate of R. H. Browne, Esq., a portion of which he lately sold (to Arthur Hogue) by private bargain at Five Pounds per Acre"[65].
  • In Dec 1839 Browne sold the eastern-most "192" acre portion of his land to James Williamson (1816-1897)[66], which Williamson named "Viewbank", and on which Williamson built a "genteel residence", a weatherboard home. According to the research of Sarah Hayes in her 2014 book "Good taste, fashion, luxury: a genteel Melbourne family and their rubbish", Williamson got into financial difficulty which resulted in this "192" acres being put up for sale in Oct 1842. Her research is that Browne firstly brought the property back, and then 2 years later, in Aug 1844, sold the property again[67]. Aug 1844 was close to the time that Browne moved to Hobart.
  • Browne was also to sell his western-most portion of "214" acres to William Verner (1807-1893).
  • Browne retained ownership of the "279" acre portion of his land, the section between the portions that he sold to Arthur Hogue and William Verner, until mid-1843, and established a residence there[68][59]. This was the portion that Browne was later to sell to Joseph Hawdon in mid-1843 for £1550[61]. (Joseph Hawdon was bought the land adjoining this "279" acre portion: firstly, also in 1843, the "264" acre portion from Arthur Hogue, which Arthur Hogue had named "Banyule", the name that Hawdon decided to keep for his estate; and secondly, in 1845, the "214" acre portion from William Verner, until Hawdon's "Banyule Estate" totalled about 700 acres.) In her book Sarah Hayes discusses an advertisement of 5 Oct 1839[69] which happens to be for the sale of 25 lots of 40 to 60 acres of land (approx 1250 acres) without realising that this land for sale was part of the 3130 acres of land that had been initially been purchased by Thomas Walker for subdivision and resale. The advertisement describes the land for sale as "adjacent to the highly improved Estate of Joseph Hawdon, Esq". She then goes on to discuss Joseph Hawdon's "Banyule" Homestead, his Elizabethan-Gothic revival style mansion, that was completed in 1846. What she misses is that the 5 Oct 1839 advertisement is referring to Joseph Hawdon's first purchase of land for £1670, being 363 acres north of Sylvester John Brown's "Hartlands" and south of the village reserve[61], and also part of the 3130 acres of land that had been initially been purchased by Thomas Walker for subdivision and resale,[70]. It was not until 1843 that Hawdon purchased the land on which he built his "Banyule" Homestead, land that had been part of Richard Henry Browne's 920 acre setion 6[62][61][68]. Sarah Browne then contradictorily[71] goes on to incorrectly discuss a second advertisement of 7 Mar 1840[72] as an advertisement of the sale of Richard Henry Browne's 920 acre subdivided into 4 lots estate, without noticing that the advertisement is for 100 acres in 10 acre blocks and is another section of the 3130 acres of land that had been initially been purchased by Thomas Walker for subdivision and resale.

Before Apr 1839 Richard Henry Browne had arrived in Melbourne. After he arrived he went to the area that he was to name Heidelberg, to both check on his land upon which he planned to settle, and began to make plans to sell both some of his land and some Thomas Walker's land as his agent. Page 2 of "Port Phillip Gazette" of 6 Apr 1839 included an article that stated "of all the beautiful tracts of agricultural soil, only one section, in the possession of R.H.Browne, Esq. has been laid out for improvement".

The colourful champaign sale that Browne then held overlooking the Yarra River, to sell the blocks of land owned by Thomas Walker, is described in the "Introduction" that forms part of this article. It was at this sale that he changed the name of the area from Warringal to Heidelberg. The sale of this land belonging to Thomas Walker, both the large blocks like Joseph Hawdon's 363 acres, and the smaller blocks of 40 to 60 acre blocks in the Glanville and Gertrude Estates, was a success. Browne is said to have "obtained prices from the private buyers some 10 times that paid"[7]. Page 2 of "Port Phillip Gazette" of 26 Jun 1839 included an article that stated "a country section known as the original purchase of R.H.Browne, Esq., possesses within its circumference a population of one hunderd individuals, which from its rapid increase has induced the proprietors of the different stations to make a requisition to the Government for the usual allowance in aid of their purpose - the erection of a church". The writer of this article was not aware of who actually had owned this land, but was aware that Browne had sold it.

These "one hundred individuals" who had already settled on the land that they had purchased by Jun 1839 included both Richard Henry Browne and his neighbour Arthur Hogue. Page 3 of "Port Phillip Gazette" of 22 Jun 1839 included a notice that stated "Roman Catholic Chapel. We have been requested by our townsman Mr Browne of Heidelberg to mention that the expression of thanks for the further use of the building now occupied as a temporary chapel, is not due to him but to his friend the proprietor Arthur Hogue, Esq., of Banyule". This notice also shows that Browne had named his estate "Heidelberg".

  • The advertisement of 5 Oct 1839 (for an auction on 7 Oct) names some of the people having "highly improved estates" in the area. Named were Joseph Hawdon "the enterprising discoverer of the overland route for Stock to South Australia", Captain George Brunswick Smyth (1814-1845)[73] "H(is) M(ajesty's) 80th regiment", Captain Sylvester John Browne, Colonel Kenneth Snodgrass (1784-1853)[74] "C.B." (Companion of the order of the Bath, a military honour), David Charteris Macarthur (1808–1887)[75][76] "Manager Bank of Australia" at Melbourne, etc, etc. These were people who bought land in 1839 through Richard Henry Browne as Melbourne agent for Thomas Walker, or for those who were Sydney residents, as in the case of Kenneth Snodgrass, possibly directly from Thomas Walker in Sydney[77]. Also named was George Isaac Porter who had bought land in Sydney at the 13 Sep 1838 sale, land that was adjacent to the land purchased by Thomas Walker (and another block that was adjacent to Richard Henry Browne's). Not named were Richard Henry Browne or Arthur Hogue whose estates were a little further away, not being, like Porter's land, adjacent to Thomas Walker's land. Richard Henry Browne and Arthur Hogue must have numbered among the etceteras. Also amongst the etceteras was William Wedge Darke (1810-1890), the surveyor for Melbourne who had also speculatively purchased some of Thomas Walker's land. The advertisement refers to the village reserve for the future village as the "romantic village of 'Heidelberg'".
  • The advertisement of 21 Feb 1840 (for an auction on 26 Feb) also names some of the same people who bought land in 1839 through Richard Henry Browne as Melbourne agent for Thomas Walker: Joseph Hawdon, Captain Gorge Brunswick Smyth, Captain Sylvester John Brown, and David Charteris Macarthur. In addition Captain John Thom (c1808-) is named. As "this fertile tract of land is thickly studded with the most elegant habitations of the most respectable gentry", this time Richard Henry Browne is included in the list, as is Arthur Hogue who had purchased the "264" acre portion of Richard Henry Browne's land. Not mentioned this time was George Isaac Porter (an oversight). This advertisement was for the 960 acres north of the village reserve (instead of south like Thomas Watson's land) and to the west and adjacent to Browne's original 920 acres. In this advertisement the village is refered to as Heidelberg.
    • Note: Captain John Thom, of Launceston, is known to have purchased and sold land at Adelaide in 1838, and may have purchased some of Thomas Walker's land from Richard Henry Browne in 1839. The reference in the advertisement of 21 Feb 1840 to Captain John Thom having a residence at Heidelberg could also be a reference to the home of Archibald Thom (1787-1862), of Launceston. Archibald Thom (it is not known if they were related) also purchased 105 acres of Thomas Walker's land for £525 from Richard Henry Browne in 1839 which he called "Ivanhoe", and is known to have lived there. In Apr 1840 Archibald Thom also leased Arthur Hogue's "264" acre "Banyule" for £200 per annum. He was living in a wood and brick house at Heidelberg with his family in Mar 1841 census of New South Wales, whilst Arthur Hogue was in Calcutta with Richard Henry Browne (see section "Other interests in the Colony that was to become Victoria, 1839-1844" below).
  • The advertisement of 7 Mar 1840 (for an auction on 23 Mar) does not name other residents of the area. It refers to the land as being part of "the Heidelberg property, adjoining the Township of Warringal, generally known as the romantic Heidelberg". The town continued to be officially known as Warringal until the 1860s when its unoffical name of Heidelberg became its official name[78].

Interestingly an article in the July 1839 newspapers of Port Phillip discussed the approaching first land auction in Melbourne (as opposed to Sydney) of Government land in the Port Phillip district. The article announced the good news "of the Governor's determination to promote the prosperity of this portion of the Colony, by holding frequent sales of Land in Melbourne". The writer hoped to soon be able to announce the availabilty of land on the Southern side of the Yarra River "opposite to the estates of Mr. Walker, the monopoliser, and Mr. Heidelberg Browne (emphasis added), the victimiser. Those gentlemen will, no doubt, be disappointed, as their system of subdividing will soon be at an end"[11].

Other interests in the Colony that was to become Victoria, 1839-1844

After Richard Henry Browne moved to the Port Phillip district to live in the area that he was to call Heidelberg, and after he sold land to the men who became his neighbours: James Hawdon, Arthur Hogue, Sylvester John Brown, David Charteris McArthur, William Verner and James Williamson; Browne became involved with these men both socially and in business. Examples of this involvement are found in the section on Heidelberg above, and immediately below.

  • In April 1839 R.H.Browne to be a director, along with Arthur Hogue, Sylvester John Brown and David Charteris McArthur (& others) of the about to be formed Melbourne Fire and Marine Insurance Company[79].
  • On 1 Aug 1839 R.H.Browne speculatively purchased, at the first sale of Government land held in Melbourne (as opposed to Sydney), 3 blocks of Port Phillip land of 373, 1117 & 640 acres respectively.[11]
  • On 21 Aug 1839 R.H.Browne, together with his friend Arthur Hogue, sailed for Sydney on the "Emma". They arrive in Sydney on 1 Sep 1839[80]. They are back in Melbourne before 9 Oct 1839.
  • Before 9 Oct 1839, at a Melbourne auction of crown land, R.H.Brown(sic) speculatively purchased 2 blocks of land at Port Phillip being 46 & 42 acres respectively. At the same auction Arthur Hogue purchased 2 blocks being 51 & 54 acres respectively. Also at the same auction Thomas Walker of Sydney purchased a block of 47 acres.[81].
  • In Januray 1840 Richard Henry Browne becomes the mortgagor for his neighbour George Isaac Porter's land for £2,500. George Isaac Porter is able to fully repay this mortgage on 21 Nov 1843[52].
  • On 5 Feb 1840 R.H.Browne speculatively purchased at an auction of Crown land at Melbourne blocks in both the Port Phillip and Geelong districts. He purchased 1 block of 775 acres at Port Phillip and 3 blocks at Geelong of 787, 640 & 816 acres respectively. At the same auction Joseph Hawdon purchased 2 blocks at Geelong of 640 acres each. At the same auction James Williamson purchased 2 blocks at Port Phillip of 1250 & 660 acres respectively. At the same auction William Verner purchased a block at Port Phillip of 1065 acres. All these men who were living at Heidelberg were identified as from Melbourne. Also at the same auction Thomas Walker of Sydney purchased 2 blocks at Port Phillip of 1045 & 1120 acres respectively and a block at Geelong of 752 acres[82].
  • On 20 Feb 1840 R.H.Browne is at Geelong as part of a deputation "of the residents in the district of Geelong...to present memorials praying for the establishment of a post-office communication between Melbourne and Geelong" and other infrastructure including a bar across the entrance of the harbour[83]. Richard Henry Browne is now dividing his time between Heidelberg and Geelong.
  • Before 3 Apr 1840 Browne has sailed to Sydney, as on 3 Apr 1840 R.H.Brown(sic) is registered to sail from Sydney to Hobart on the "Australasian Packet"[84]. He changed his mind and instead R.H.Browne sailed soon after 22 Apr from Sydney bound for Melbourne on the "Strathfieldsaye"[85]. While is Sydney R.H.Browne resigns as the Melbourne Agent for Intestate Estates[86]. Also whilst in Sydney R.H.Brown(sic), Melbourne becomes a signatory to an anti-emancipist petition. All the other signtories, including his cousin H.O'Brien, Yass and Sydney, are men from today's New South Wales, and none, other than Browne, are from Port Phillip[87].
  • On 5 May 1840 R.H.Browne is 1 of 3 men appointed to a committee to draw up a memorial requesting that funds from the sale of Crown land be used to fund the emmigration "of carefully selected emigrants of the working classes from the mother country", and "to obtain as extensively as possible the signatures of the residents both in the town and country". Arthur Hogue was also present at this meeting[88].
  • In July 1840 "R. H. Browne, Esq., of Heidelbergh(sic), who is about to leave the colony for Europe, has very handsomely presented to the Roman Catholics of Melbourne a bell for the use of their chapel"[89]. He did not leave for Europe, but instead travelled to Calcutta.
  • By Sep 1840 Browne had sailed to Sydney. On 29 Sep 1840 R.H.Browne sailed from Sydney aboard the "Theresa" bound for Calcutta, the only recorded passenger[90], arriving in Calcutta about 3 months later. Meeting Browne in Calcutta in about February 1841 were his friends, Arthur Hogue and Joseph Hawdon, who had sailed from Sydney on 11 Nov 1840 bound for Calcutta aboard the "Prince Albert", the only recorded passengers[91], arriving in Calcutta about 3 months later. Still in Calcutta in Mar 1841, this was recorded for the 3 men as having been a trip "home" on page 3 of the "Port Phillip Gazette" of 22 Sep 1841[61]. This was definately a trip home for Browne and Hogue who had both been born in or near Calcutta and who had both spent their early years growing up there. It was not, however, a trip home for Hawdon who had been born in Walkerfield, Durham, England and had no association with Calcutta other than being there with his two friends.
  • In Aug 1841 R.H.Browne pledged a £5 subscription towards the erection of a church at Geelong[92]
  • Before Jan 1844 R.H.Brown(sic) was made a director of the Bank of Australiasia in Melbourne[93]. An article about "Bygone Days: Christening of Heidelberg" on page 4 of "The Argus" of 8 Apr 1939[7] states that Richard Henry Browne was made a director in 1839 (from details provided by historian Alfred Stephen Kenyon (1867-1943)[94]), which was during the time that David Charteris McArthur was manager in Melbourne.
  • On 23 Mar 1844 R.H.Browne arrived in Sydney on the "Shamrock" which had left Melbourne on 16 Mar[95]. This was a very short trip as R.H.Brown(sic) sailed back to Melbourne aboard the same ship on 29 Mar 1844[96]
  • On 26 Apr 1844, between 3 and 4 pm, at Mebourne, Richard Henry Browne cast his vote to elect two members to sit in Legislative Council.[97]
  • In August 1844 Browne sold the last of his land at Heidelberg, being the "192" acres, that he had purchased back from James Williamson about Oct 1842, complete with a weatherboard house[67]. He had sold the "279" acre portion, that he had previously been residing on, to Joseph Hawdon in mid-1843[61].
  • On 29 Aug 1844 R.H.Browne again sailed from Melbourne bound for Sydney on the "Dale Park"[98]
  • In Nov 1844 Richard Henry Browne resigned as a trustee of the Saving's Bank of Port Phillip[99]. Hawdon was also a trustee of this Bank[61].
  • On 4 Dec 1844 it is reported in the "Launceston Examiner" that: "BANK OF AUSTRALIASIA.-The Port Phillip Herald reports that Mr. (David Charteris) McArthur will take the management at Melbourne, that Mr. Cope will proceed to Launceston, and that Mr. R. H. Browne will be stationed at Hobart Town"[100]. Further is said in the "South Australian Register" of 24 Dec 1844: "Bank of Australasia.—Considerable changes are about to take place in this establishment. Mr McArthur, formerly the Manager of this Bank for Melbourne, is about to be re-instated in his old berth, and for that purpose is about to be recalled from Hobart Town, where he has been similarly employed on behalf of the Company, since the appointment of Mr Cope, in Melbourne. Mr R. H. Browne proceeds to Van Diemen's Land, to assume the appointment, vacant by the removal of Mr McArthur, while Mr Cope appears to have shared but indifferently in these arrangements. We understand he was offered the situation of accountant, as a recompence for his lost management, but this he declined to accept. The salaries, and number of clerks in all the departments of this establishment, are also about to be reduced[101].

Hobart, 1845-1848

  • 14 Feb 1845 R.H.Brown(sic) is voted on to a committee to protest and agitate against an increase to duties by the Government[102]
  • 15 Feb 1845 R.H.Browne is made a trustee of the Hobart Town Savings Bank[103].
  • 20 Mar 1845 Richard Henry Browne made a JP (magistrate) at Hobart: "GOVERNMENT NOTICE. Colonial Secretary's Office, March 20, 1845. The Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased to insert the names of the under-mentioned gentlemen in the Commission of the Peace: Richard Henry Browne, and John Cannan, Esquires. By His Excellency's Command, J. E. BICHENO"[104].
  • May 1845 R.H. Browne has become a signatory to a petition against the present form of transportation of convicts[105].
  • Aug 1845 Richard Henry Brown(sic) still owns land at Geelong. Therefore one of 469 voters who qualified to vote by owning Freehold in Barabool Hills, 3 miles from Geelong, per Electors List District of Bourke[106].
  • 11 Feb 1847 Richard Henry Browne on list of JPs[107].
  • Prior to 19 Jan 1848 resigns as manager of Bank of Australasia at Hobart[108].
  • 19 Jan 1848[109] sails from Launceston bound for Sydney via Melbourne[110] on the "Shamrock". Arrived Sydney 26 Jan 1848[111]. Passenger list states "R. H. Browne, Esq., lately manager of Baok of Australia, Hobart Town"[108]. This was a very short trip as the "Shamrock" was cleared to sail from Sydney with R.H.Browne as a passenger on 31 Jan 1848 bound for Launceston via Melbourne[112].
  • After tying up the last of his affairs, by 26 Feb 1848 R.H.Browne was back in Sydney[113]. He sailed from Sydney on 1 Mar 1848 bound for London on the "St George"[114].

United Kingdom, 1848-1882

  • Sep 1848 - even though Richard Henry Browne now lived in London, his name still appeared in Melbourne newspapers in relation to Heidelberg as he was the original purchaser of portion 6. A notice appears on page 1 of "The Melbourne Argus" of 22 Sep 1848 about a new road to be built "on the division line between James Watson and Richard Henry Brown's purchases, in the parish of Keelbundora, crossing the Yarra Yarra Rivulet"[115].
  • Census of England 3 Apr 1851. Visitor at 52 Regent St, St James, London. Unmarried. Occupation: Gentleman. Born: East Indies (a popular name for India). Stated age 45 yeears (he was 49). Name shown Richard Browne.
  • 31 Jul 1852, London, Richard Henry Browne to be a Director of newly formed London Chartered Bank of Australia, late director of Bank of Australiasia, Melbourne[116].
  • Feb 1853, London, Richard Henry Browne to be a Director of newly formed Australasian Coal Mining Company (to trade from Newcastle), late director of Bank of Australiasia, Melbourne. An interesting aside: "To facilitate the Company's operations, arrangements have been made for importing from China a sufficient number of labourers. Chinese are now extensively employed in the colony, and experience shows that they form as efficient labourers as Europeans ; their services will be scoured, as customary, for a term of years at low wages, under articles of indenture legalised by colonial acts." This was during the Australian Goldrush when many men from China immigrated to Australia to prospect on the goldfields, and those who stayed had to find other work.[117].
  • Aug 1853, Richard Henry Browne is a signatory on a petition to the NSW Legislative Council to Incorporate the City of Newcastle. Petition presented at NSW Parliament in Sydney by Charles Cowper (1807 - 1875)[118][119]. The other men who signed this petition were, like Richard Henry Browne, living in London and associated with the newly formed Australasian Coal Mining Company[117].
  • Census of England 3 Apr 1861. Lodger at 5 Whitehall, St Martins in the Fields, London. Unmarried. Occupation: Fund Holder & Land Proprietor. Born: East Indies (a popular name for India) / British subject. Stated age 56 yeears (he was 59). Name shown Richard H. Brown(sic).
  • 3 Jun 1861 Richard Henry Browne attends London AGM of London Chartered Bank of Australasia[120].
  • 6 Jun 1862 Richard Henry Browne attends London AGM of London Chartered Bank of Australasia[121].
  • 1868 London Chartered Bank of Australasia advertises in Sands Directory of Sydney. Richard Henry Browne listed as a director[122].
  • Census of England 3 Apr 1871. Lodger at 9 Spring Gardens, St Martins in the Fields, London. Unmarried. Occupation: Independent Means. Born: British East Indies (a popular name for India). Stated age 64 yeears (he was 69). Name shown Richard H. Browne.
  • Census of Scotland 3 Apr 1881. 1 of 21 Inmates at Mavis Bank Lunatic Institution (Mavisbank House)[4]) at Lasswade, Midlothian, Scotland (near Edinburgh). Unmarried. Occupation: former East Indies merchant. Born: Hindustan (another popular name for India). Stated age 72 yeears (he was 79). Name shown Richard Henry Brown(sic). Mavisbank House was being used as an asylum for the insane who either had means or a sponsor who could pay for their care. The 1881 census shows that inmates included, for example, landed proprietors, persons of independant means, solicitors, medical practitioners, druggists, school masters, ministers, missionarys, merchants, merchants clerks, farmers, builders, or their wives, widows, sons or daughters.
  • 16 May 1882. Richard Henry Browne dies at Mavisbank House, Lasswade, MidLothian, Scotland (near Edinbough)[3][1]. He is buried at Edinburgh[123].


Siblings

Residences

References

  1. ^ a b England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1966. Richard Henry Browne, formerly of Union Club, Trafalgar Square, London: date of death 16 May 1882; place of death Mavisbank House in the county of Midlothian, Scotland; date of probate 13 Jul 1882 Principal Registry (London); value of Estate £38,580, 3s, 5d; executors David Aitcheson, James Grant Peterkin, John Cleghorn, Harry Snow & James Nairne Scott.
  2. ^ The National Archives: Currency Converter: Find out how much yesterday's (1270-1970) money was worth in 2005.
  3. ^ a b Edinburgh Gazette, 21 Jul 1882, p555
  4. ^ a b Mavisbank (the Asylum years)
  5. ^ In Thomas Alexander Browne's book "Old Melbourne Memories", published in 1884 under his pseudonym of Rolf Boldrewood.
  6. ^ a b Australian Dictionary of Biography Browne, Thomas Alexander (1826–1915)
  7. ^ a b c The Argus, "Bygone Days: Christening of Heidelberg", 8 Apr 1939, p4 "Mr. A. S. Kenyon who is well known as an authority on early Victorian history supplies the following particulars regarding "Continental" Browne who gave Heidelberg its name:— "Richard Henry Browne was at Yass in 1838 as a stock holder. Associated with Thomas Walker, of Concord, whose far-reaching will was the affair of the moment lately in Sydney, in the purchase of much Melbourne town, suburban, and country land, Browne was entrusted with the job of making the profit. He was certainly well adapted for the task. As Rolfe Boldrewood" (Thomas Alexander Browne) "relates, Browne was slight, vivacious, soigne in dress, uniformly courteous of manner, and very fond of retelling incidents of his grand Continental tour (hence his nickname). Warringal, the official name of the village given by Robert Hoddle himself and meaning 'a wild dog leaping,' was not at all attractive, in fact it was rather vulgar and smelt of the blackfellow. Boldrewood" (Thomas Alexander Browne) "gives the scene: 'I can fancy I look at my ever-remembered ever-regretted Heidelberg...It is, it shall be Heidelberg. Charles, open more champagne. We must christen this thrice-favoured spot, on this trebly, auspicious, occasion, worthily, irrevocably.' As he obtained prices from the private buyers some 10 times that paid —13/"(13 shillings) "an acre— for the 5,000-odd acres bought by the syndicate, it is small wonder that Browne cut a figure and some dash in Melbourne society." In 1839 he was appointed a director of the Bank of Australasia and in 1840 agent for intestate estates. He was trustee of the Savings Bank until 1844, when he left for Hobart. He was not successful in Tasmania, and about 1846 went to the east, where he is said to have died shortly afterwards." This information is incorrect in a few points: (1) the meaning of the aboriginal word Warringal, according to the Heritage Council of Victoria, may have been "eagle's nest", the very similar word Warrigal, according to the Oxford Dictionery, means "wild dingo"; (2) There was no syndicate. The land that Richard Henry Browne was selling was all owned by Thomas Walker who had purchased 3130 acres; (3) the 10 times the price paid is an exageration, with prices being paid at between £4 and £5 per acre - for example Joseph Hawdon paid £1670 for his 363 acres - just over £4 12s per acre, which at a cost of 13s per acre (if this figure is accurate as Richard Henry Brown paid more than this) is 7 times the price paid; (4) Browne resigned as Melbourne agent for intestate estates in 1840; (5) In 1846 he did not go "to the east". In 1848, after resigning as the Manager of the Hobart branch of the Bank of Australasia Browne sailed to England, continued to be sucessful in business and continued to have interests in Australia, and died a rich man over 30 years later in 1882.
  8. ^ The Age, 7 Sep 1940, p8: Lovely Heidelberg Heidelberg “had its beginning as a residential and pastoral settlement in 1838, when Melbourne was but three years old. On September 12 in that year an area of 5000 acres, extending back from the Darebin Creek to the present ‘village,’ was purchased from the Government of New South Wales on behalf of a number of Sydney capitalists for subdivision into smaller estates. A young Englishman of distinguished manner, Richard Henry Browne, came to Melbourne to dispose of the allotments. This ‘most refined of land agents’ was a slightly built, vivacious man, a social celebrity of his day, and by reason of his intimate knowledge of Europe, in which he had travelled extensively, was known as ‘Continental Browne.’ For the sale of the estates, which he conducted on the crest of the hill now known as Mt. Eagle, Browne arranged a champagne picnic. Among the colonists who attended the sale was Thomas Alexander Browne, then a boy, but later to become famous as Rolf Boldrewood, author of "Robbery Under Arms" and other notable works of Australian literature His father, Captain Sylvester John Browne(sic) (no relation to Richard Henry Browne), was a buyer at the sale, and it was on this occasion that Heidelberg received its name. The christening ceremony is described by Rolf Boldrewood in his book ‘Old Melbourne Memories’, published in 1899…” This information is incorrect in a few points: (1) The date of the sale of land was 13 Sep 1838; (2) There was no "number of Sydney capitalists", the land that Richard Henry Browne was selling was all owned by Thomas Walker who had purchased 3130 acres; (3) Richard Henry Browne was not an Englishman, but he had been educated in England after being born near Calcutta; (4) Thomas Alexander Browne did not attend the sale as he was still at school in Sydney, instead it was his father who attended the sale, and Thomas Alexander Browne's writings of the sale came from what his father related to him; (5) "Memories of Melbourne" was published not in 1899 but in 1884.
  9. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 13 Feb 1819, p3 Described as "Two Sons of W. Browne, Esq. merchant, of Macquarie Place (Sydney)"
  10. ^ "John (William Browne) arrived as a free immigrant's child with his brother Richard (Henry Browne) aboard the ship 'Harriet' in 1819 and took over some of the running of his father's business and pastoral interests. The brothers had been on a 'grand tour' after completing their education in England." per: Spurway, John, ed. Australian Biographical and Genealogical Record. Series 1, 1788-1841, with series 2 supplement, 1842-1899. Sydney: A.B.G.R., 1992. This is not generally a good reference as it also contains unsubstantiated claims which can be disproved, such as that his brother John William Brown was killed by aboriginals at Bathurst in 1834 when instead he died in Sydney at his own hands after ingesting poison (see page for John William Browne (1801-1834)). This claim about the brothers, however, can be relied upon as it can be proven from other sources. In relation to the 'grand tour' the sources upon which John Spurway relied were unaware of Richard Henry Browne's time in Melbourne where he was nicknamed 'Continental' Browne.
  11. ^ a b c The Cornwall Chronicle, 11 Aug 1839, p1
  12. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography: Walker, Thomas (1804–1886)
  13. ^ a b Heidelberg, The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 Feb 2004
  14. ^ "Old Melbourne Memories", Rolf Boldrewood (Thomas Aleander Browne), George Robertson & Co, 1884, cited in The Age, 7 Sep 1940, p8: Lovely Heidelberg
  15. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 10 Apr 1819, p1
  16. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin - 1820 Jul 1, Memorial (Fiche 3015; 4/1823 No.87 p.196)
  17. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 4 Nov 1820, p2
  18. ^ http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/icely-thomas-2258 Australian Dictionary of Biography: Icely, Thomas (1797–1874)]
  19. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 8 Mar 1822, p2 - 2 advertisements: the first for sale of cargos by "Mr R.H. Browne; or at the Office of Mr Icely, Macquarie-place"; and the second for sale of goods from "Mr Icely's Stores, Macquarie Place (late Mr Browne's)"
  20. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin - 1822 Jun 20, On schedule of bills drawn upon H.M. Treasury (Reel 6054; 4/1757 pp.44, 44b)
  21. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 7 Jun 1822, p1
  22. ^ a b The Sydney Herald, 9 Nov 1838, p2
  23. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin - 1824 May 28, Memorial (Fiche 3080; 4/1836B No.109 pp.597-8). Reply, 5 Jun (Reel 6013; 4/3511 p.392)
  24. ^ The Bundanon Trust Properties Management Plan • 2007, pp.3-4 An advertisement in the 23 Oct 1832 NSW Government Gazette includes a reference to this "lands promised". The conditions of these grants were that 'Within five years 55 acres [were] to be cleared and cultivated and fences erected'. The Bundanon Trust Properties Management Plan in discussing this reference states incorrectly that "there appear to have been a number of R.H. Brownes in NSW at this time". This is a confusion caused by the many any varied references to the one man, Richard Henry Browne. They then correctly identify him as "a merchant travelling between India and Australia" from references in "The Sydney Gazette" in the period up to 1826.
  25. ^ "Historical Records of the Illawarra Region of NSW, Australia, 1770 - 1855, A Chronological Guide to Sources and Events", Michael Organ and A.P. Doyle, January 1995
  26. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 29 Apr 1824, p2
  27. ^ Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser, 9 Apr 1824, p2
  28. ^ Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser, 23 Apr 1824, p4 "Mr. R. H. Browne leaving the Colony (of Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania), requests Claims to be presented."
  29. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 13 May 1824, p2
  30. ^ a b c d Australian Dictionary of Biography: O'Brien, Henry (1793–1866)
  31. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin / O'BRIEN, Henry. Came free per "Frederick", 1815. Brother of Cornelius and nephew of William Browne; conducted Browne's business and properties at Abbotsbury and Appin and established own farm on Bathurst plains in 1821. Later he established the first sheep station on the Murrumbidgee at Yass (Jugiong) - 1824 Jun, Jul, Convicts assigned to in the District of Appin; with Mr H O'Brien. (Reel 6028; 2/8283 p.61)
  32. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, William. Came free per "Mary", 1816; merchant, Magistrate and landholder - 1824 Apr, Convicts assigned to in the District of Appin (Reel 6028; 2/8283 pp.59)
  33. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin / O'BRIEN, Henry. Came free per "Frederick", 1815. Brother of Cornelius and nephew of William Browne; conducted Browne's business and properties at Abbotsbury and Appin and established own farm on Bathurst plains in 1821. Later he established the first sheep station on the Murrumbidgee at Yass (Jugiong) - 1824 Jun, Jul, Convicts assigned to in the District of Appin; with Mr H O'Brien; & 1824 Jul 31, Convict per "Countess of Harcourt" assigned; with Mr H O'Brien (Reel 6028; 2/8283 pp.63, 65, 67)
  34. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin / O'BRIEN, Henry. Came free per "Frederick", 1815. Brother of Cornelius and nephew of William Browne; conducted Browne's business and properties at Abbotsbury and Appin and established own farm on Bathurst plains in 1821. Later he established the first sheep station on the Murrumbidgee at Yass (Jugiong) - 1824 Nov 23,30, Convicts returned to Government by in District of Appin; with Mr H O'Brien (Reel 6028; 2/8283 p.71)
  35. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin / O'BRIEN, Henry. Came free per "Frederick", 1815. Brother of Cornelius and nephew of William Browne; conducted Browne's business and properties at Abbotsbury and Appin and established own farm on Bathurst plains in 1821. Later he established the first sheep station on the Murrumbidgee at Yass (Jugiong) - 1824 Oct 19, Certification by J T Morissett for a ticket of occupation for Browne and Mr H O'Brien (Fiche 3080; 4/1836B No.109 p.599)
  36. ^ Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825: BROWNE, Richard Henry. Son of William Browne of Appin - 1824 Nov 5, Allowed temporary occupation of land forty five miles south east of Bathurst for use as a grazing run (Reel 6013; 4/3512 p.687)
  37. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 5 Apr 1826, p3
  38. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 27 Sep 1832, p1
  39. ^ The Colonist, 16 Mar 1837, p7
  40. ^ The Colonist, 23 Mar 1837, p8 "10 hogsheads rum, 2 hogseads gin, 3 cases cheese, 7 cases mustard, 32 casks beer, 10 casks wine, 11 casks colours, 20 half-hogsheads vinegar. 105 cases, 22 casks, 2 bales British goods, R.H.Brown(sic)"
  41. ^ The Hobart Town Courier, 10 Nov 1837, p4
  42. ^ a b The Australian, 27 Feb 1838, p2
  43. ^ The Sydney Herald, 21 Dec 1837, p2
  44. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography Gipps, Sir George (1791–1847)
  45. ^ The Sydney Herald, 19 Mar 1838, p3
  46. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 5 Apr 1838, p2
  47. ^ The Sydney Monitor, 18 Dec 1837, p2 "37 matted bundles rope, 97 barrels tar varnish, 60 pockets hops, R. H. Browne"
  48. ^ The Hobart Town Courier, 30 Mar 1838, p4 "1 tub sugarcandy, 1 pkge silk, 1 ditto tea, R. H. Brown(sic)"
  49. ^ a b c Heidelberg Historical Society: The 1838 Land Sales There were 2 advertisements in the NSW Government Gazette of 30 May 1838 for the sale of the same land: one dated 20 May 1838 for a sale of Wednesday 12 Sep 1838; and a corrected advertisement dated 29 May 1838 for a sale on Thursday 13 Sep 1838
  50. ^ a b Banyule Homestead 1830s-1840S
  51. ^ Heidelberg Historical Society: Darebin Bridge Hotel
  52. ^ a b George Isaac Porter: across two worlds, Anne Marsden and Marcus Langdon, Melbourne Athenaeum Inc., 2014
  53. ^ Thomas Wills at Heidelberg Historical Society Thomas Wills later bought another 176 acres to the west of Darebin Creek in 1840, in what is now Alphington.
  54. ^ Neil Campbell (1800-1882) is better known as Neil Campbell of Campbellfield, Victoria. He was not the only member of his family to emigrate to Van Diemen's Land and arrived in Hobart from Scotland in 1824. He married Jessie Drummond in Hobart in 1832. He is known to have owned land in Keelbundoora parish (PSP 67 - DONNYBROOK POST-CONTACT HERITAGE ASSESSMENT, Aug 2013, p11). What is not known is why Neil Campbell was in Sydney in September 1838 which enabled him to buy the 1035 acre portion 10. He moved to Port Phillip as soon as he had bought the land, and was in Port Phillip by 10 January 1839 when he was a witness at a wedding (Victoria before 1848). He sold this 1035 acre portion 10 in Kellbundoora parish in 1842 to Malcolm McLean. Like Thomas Walker he has been described as a speculator for his purchase of this land on 13 Sep 1838, but the facts show that he was not as he farmed the land for 6 years, and then only sold it for a small profit (In Memorandum, a guide to the history and heritage of Victoria's cemeteries, Garrie Hutchinson, Hardie Grant Books, 2014, Preston General Cmetery, p57).
  55. ^ Sylvester John Brown Sylvester John Brown (not related to Richard Henry Browne) later purchased another 313 acres, at what is now East Ivanhoe, at the sale held in 1839 by Richard Henry Browne of part of the Thomas Walker land, naming the property "Hartlands". His son, Thomas Alexander Browne (who added the 'e' to the surname) had been at the sale with his father. He later wrote about the sale in his 1884 book "Old Melbourne Memories" under his adopted pseudonym Rolf Boldrewood. He became one of Australia's first novelists of note, being best known for his 1882 novel "Robbery Under Arms".
  56. ^ Rosanna
  57. ^ James Watson
  58. ^ Former Mont Park Hospital, Victorian Heritage Database Report
  59. ^ a b Port Phillip Herald, 21 February 1840, cited at Banyule Homestead 1830s-1840S
  60. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography: Hawdon, Joseph (1813–1871)
  61. ^ a b c d e f g JOSEPH HAWDON (1813-1871) This web-site also contains the following maps: (1) 1838 Heidelberg subdivision - portions 1-9, with initial purchasers; (2) subdivision of Thomas Walker's 1040 acre portion 2 with initial purchasers Joseph Hawdon (363 acres), Sylvester John Brown (313 acres), George Brunswick Smyth (196 acres), David Charteris McArthur, (84 acres) and William Wedge Darke(84 acres); (3) subdivision of Richard Henry Browne's portion 6 with initial purchasers.
  62. ^ a b "Heidelberg Historian No. 79, August 1980: TWO EARLY PROPERTIES, Heidelberg Historical Society
  63. ^ Port Phillip Gazette, 22 Jun 1839, p3: "Arthur Hogue, Esq., of Banyule"
  64. ^ VICTORIA PARLIAMENTARY DEBATES (HANSARD), FIFTIETH PARLIAMENT SPRING SESSION 1986, Legislative Assembly, VOL. CCCLXXXIV, From October 7, 1986, to November 13, 1986, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, p1219
  65. ^ The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser, 10 Apr 1839, p3
  66. ^ Viewbank, Heidelberg
  67. ^ a b Good taste, fashion, luxury: a genteel Melbourne family and their rubbish, Studies in Australasian Historical Archeaology Volume 5, Sarah Hayes, Australiasian Society for Historical Archeaology, Sydney University Press, 2014, pp.8-9
  68. ^ a b The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser, 9 Mar 1840, p3, contains an undated story of Joseph Hawdon visiting "at Heidelberg, the estate of R. H. Browne,Esq."
  69. ^ The Australiam, 5 Oct 1839, p4 This advertisement is for land in the Glanville and Gertrude Estates "adjoining the romantic village of 'Heidelberg'", two estates subdivided from the 3130 acres of land adjoining the village reserve that had been initially been purchased by Thomas Walker for subdivision and resale.
  70. ^ A Pictorial History of Heidelberg Since 1836, Cyril Cummins (ed.), Heidelberg Historical Society, 2nd edition 1982, p26, cited at Banyule Homestead 1830s-1840S
  71. ^ Contradictorily because Joseph Hawdon cannot both own the land in Oct 1839 on which he later built the "Banyule Homestead", and this same land not be offered for sale until Mar 1840.
  72. ^ The Australian, 7 Mar 1840, p3 This advertisement is for "ONE HUNDRED ACRES of the Heidelberg property, adjoining the Township of Warringal, generally known as the romantic Heidelberg", subdivided from the 3130 acres of land adjoining the village reserve that had been initially been purchased by Thomas Walker for subdivision and resale.
  73. ^ Naming Brunswick and Gertrude Streets, Meg Lee Gives an account of George Brunswick Smyth’s life and his influences on early Melbourne. Smyth purchased two large blocks of land at Heidelberg totalling 532 acres which he named "Chelsworth".
  74. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography Snodgrass, Kenneth (1784-1853)
  75. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography: McArthur, David Charteris (1808–1887)
  76. ^ Victorian Heritage Database Report
  77. ^ Snodgrass's land may have been purchased through Browne, with Kenneth Snodgrass's permission, in his name by his son Peter Snodgrass (1817–1867) who had moved to Melbourne in 1838 and was a friend of George Brunswick Smyth and Arthur Hogue, all 3 being members of the Melbourne Club.
  78. ^ Heidelberg Historical Society: History
  79. ^ The Colonist 20 Apr 1839, p3
  80. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 3 Sep 1839, p2
  81. ^ The Sydney Herald, 9 Oct 1839, p1
  82. ^ The Sydney Herald, 22 Feb 1840, p2
  83. ^ The Hobart Town Courier and Van Diemen’s Land Gazette, 28 Feb 1840, p2
  84. ^ The Colonist, 4 Apr 1840, p2
  85. ^ The Colonist, 22 Apr 1840, p2
  86. ^ The Hobart Town Courier and Van Diemen’s Land Gazette, 17 Apr 1840, p3
  87. ^ The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser, 15 Aug 1840, p2
  88. ^ Australasian Chronicle, 26 May 1840, p3
  89. ^ The Cornwall Chronicle, 25 Jul 1840, p2
  90. ^ The Colonist, 1 Oct 1840, p2
  91. ^ The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 12 Nov 1840, p2
  92. ^ The Sydney Herald, 24 Aug 1841, p1
  93. ^ Launceston Examiner, 4 Dec 1844, p6
  94. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography: Kenyon, Alfred Stephen (1867–1943)
  95. ^ The Australia, 25 Mar 1844, p2
  96. ^ The Australian, 1 Apr 1844, p1
  97. ^ Port Phillip Herald, 26 Apr 1844, cited at Victoria Before 1848
  98. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 Sep 1844, p2
  99. ^ New South Wales Government Gazette, 19 Nov 1844, p1405
  100. ^ Launceston Examiner, 4 Dec 1844, p4
  101. ^ South Australian Register, 24 Dec 1844, p3
  102. ^ Colonial Times, 15 Feb 1845, p2
  103. ^ Colonial Times, 24 May 1845, 94
  104. ^ Colonial Times, 25 Mar 1845, p2
  105. ^ The Cornwall Chronicle, 25 May 1845, p4
  106. ^ Melbourne Courier, 8 Aug 1845 cited at Victoria Before 1848
  107. ^ The Courier, 20 Feb 1847, p4
  108. ^ a b Port Philip Gazette and Settler's Journal, 22 Jan 1848, p2
  109. ^ Colonial Times, 21 Jan 1848, p2
  110. ^ The Melbourne Argus, 25 Jan 1848, p2
  111. ^ The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List, 29 Jan 1848, p22
  112. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 Feb 1848, p2
  113. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald, 28 Feb 1848, p2
  114. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald, 2 Mar 1848, p2
  115. ^ The Melbourne Argus, 22 Sep 1848, p1
  116. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald, 25 Oct 1852, p3
  117. ^ a b Empire, 5 May 1853, p3
  118. ^ Parliament of NSW: Sir Charles [1 COWPER, KCMG (1807 - 1875)]
  119. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/114832236 Freeman's Journal, 6 Aug 1853, p9]
  120. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Aug 1861, p6
  121. ^ Geelong Advertiser, 21 Aug 1862, p3
  122. ^ Sands Directory, 1868, p10
  123. ^ Richard Henry Browne grave monument in Dean 2f cemetery, Edinburgh, Lothian, Scotland Richard Henry Browne 1802-1882, 80yrs



Footnotes (including sources)

§ Remains
  • Gravestone: Richard Henry Browne 1802-1882
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