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Biography

Richard II of Normandy, Duke of Normandy, was born 23 August 963 in Normandy, France to Richard I, Duke of Normandy (933-996) and Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy (c936-1031) and died 28 August 1027 Normandy, France of unspecified causes. He married Judith of Brittany (982-1017) 996 JL . He married Papia of Envermeu .

Richard was the eldest surviving son and heir of Richard the Fearless and Gunnor.[1] He succeeded his father as the ruler of Normandy in 996.[1] During his minority, the first five years of his reign, his regent was Count Rodulf of Ivry, his uncle, who wielded the power and put down a peasant insurrection at the beginning of Richard's reign.[2]

Richard had deep religious interests and found he had much in common with King Robert II of France, who he helped militarily against the Duchy of Burgundy.[2] He forged a marriage alliance with Duke Geoffrey I of Brittany by marrying his sister Hawise to him and by his own marriage to Geoffrey's sister Judith.[2]

By 1000, Vikings had begun raiding England again, where they would subsequently cross the channel to Normandy and sell their plunder. Richard provided the Vikings with sanctuary and even welcomed them.[3] This act violated a treaty signed between his father Richard I and King Ethelred II of England, in which he agreed not to aid enemies of England following similar events of assisting the Danes.[3] As a result, Richard was forced to repel an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula that was led by Ethelred.[4] Ethelred had given orders that Richard be captured, bound and brought to England.[5] But the English had not been prepared for the rapid response of the Norman cavalry and were utterly defeated.[3]

Richard attempted to improve relations with England through his sister Emma's marriage to King Ethelred.[4] This marriage was significant in that it later gave his grandson, William the Conqueror, the basis of his claim to the throne of England.[6] Emma with her two sons Edward and Alfred fled to Normandy followed shortly thereafter by her husband King Ethelred.[6] Soon after the death of Ethelred, Cnut the Great forced Emma to marry him while Richard was forced to recognize the new regime as his sister was again queen.[4] Richard had contacts with Scandinavian Vikings throughout his reign. He employed Viking mercenaries and concluded a treaty with Sweyn Forkbeard who was en route to England.[7]

By 1013, following the St Brice's Day Massacre ordered by Ethelred, King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark summoned an army to exact revenge on the English and sailed for England. He stopped in Rouen and was well received and treated courteously by Richard, who concluded an alliance with him.[3][8]

Richard II commissioned his clerk and confessor, Dudo of Saint-Quentin, to portray his ducal ancestors as morally upright Christian leaders who built Normandy despite the treachery of their overlords and neighboring principalities.[9] It was clearly a work of propaganda designed to legitimize the Norman settlement, and while it contains numerous historically unreliable legends, as respects the reigns of his father and grandfather, Richard I and William I it is considered basically reliable.[10]

In 1025 and 1026 Richard confirmed gifts of his great-grandfather Rollo to Saint-Ouen at Rouen.[11] His other numerous grants to monastic houses tends to indicate the areas over which Richard had ducal control, namely Caen, the Éverecin, the Cotentin, the Pays de Caux and Rouen.[12]

Richard II died in 1026.[1] His eldest son, Richard III, became the new duke.[1]


Fecamp Castle

Fecamp1

Ruins of Fecamp Castle, home of the Dukes of Normandy.

Fecamp Castle (aka: Château de Fécamp) is a 10th century castle built for use by the Dukes of Normandy as a principle residence in the town of Fecamp, Normandy. Today its ruins are located near the abbey church of La Trinité in the center of the town of FeCamp. Its design was a simple structure surrounded by a moat.

According to Dudon de Saint-Quentin , Richard I, Duke of Normandy (933-996) was born around 932, between the walls of the “ Fiscanni castri ”, the castle of Fécamp[13] .The place was abandoned in favor of Caen with William the Conqueror and Robert the Magnificent, and is no longer mentioned after 1162 [14] .


Marriages and children

1st Marriage: Judith of Brittany

Richard married firstly, c.1000, Judith of Brittany (982-1017), daughter of Conan I of Brittany,[15]

The Duke of Brittany had been a major foe of Normandy, but Richard forged a marriage alliance with Duke Geoffrey I of Brittany by marrying his sister Hawise of Normandy (c978-1034) to him and by his own marriage to Geoffrey's sister, Judith.[2] (See Siblings table below.)

By this marriage he had the following issue:

  1. Richard III of Normandy (997-1027), successor Duke of Normandy[16]
  2. Adelaide of Normandy (1002-1038), married Count Reginald I of Burgundy[16]
  3. Robert II, Duke of Normandy (c1000-1035), Duke of Normandy after early death of his older brother[16]
  4. William of Normandy (c1008-aft1025), monk at Fécamp, buried at Fécamp Abbey[17]
  5. Eleanor of Normandy (c1012-aft1071), married to Count Baldwin IV of Flanders[16]
  6. Matilda of Normandy (c1014-aft1033), nun at Fecamp, .[18]


2nd Marriage: Poppa of Envermeu

With his second wife, Poppa of Envermeu,[16] Richard had the following issue:

  1. Mauger de Rouen (c1019-c1055) - archbishop of Rouen[16]
  2. Guillaume de Talou (c1022-aft1054) = count of Arques[16]


Children


Offspring of Richard II of Normandy and Judith of Brittany (982-1017)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Richard III of Normandy (997-1027) 997 1027 Adèle Unknown (c1000-)
Adelaide of Normandy (1002-1038) 1002 1038 Renaud I de Bourgogne (c990-1057)
Robert II, Duke of Normandy (c1000-1035) 1000 Normandy, France 22 July 1035 Nicaea, Bithynia, Turkey Herleva of Falaise (1003-1050)
Estrid Svendsdatter of Denmark (c997-c1065)
William of Normandy (c1008-aft1025) 1008 1025
Eleanor of Normandy (c1012-aft1071) 1012 1071 Baldwin IV of Flanders (980-1036)
Matilda of Normandy (c1014-aft1033) 1014 1033


Offspring of Richard II of Normandy and Papia of Envermeu
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mauger de Rouen (c1019-c1055) 1019 1055
Guillaume de Talou (c1022-aft1054) 1022 1054 Beatrice de Ponthieu (c1035-c1082)



Siblings


Offspring of Richard I, Duke of Normandy (933-996) and Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy (c936-1031)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Richard II, Duke of Normandy (963-1027) 23 August 963 Normandy, France 28 August 1027 Normandy, France Judith of Brittany (982-1017)
Papia of Envermeu
Robert of Normandy (?-1037) 1037 Herlève (bef1037-)
Mauger, Earl of Corbeil (?-aft1033)
Robert of Normandy (?-c988)
Hawise of Normandy (977-1034) 978 21 January 1034 Geoffroi I de Bretagne (980-1008)
Maud of Normandy (?-?)
Emma of Normandy (c985-1052) 985 21 February 1052 Winchester, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom Æthelred the Unready (c968-1016)
Cnut (c990-1035)
Beatrice of Normandy (c980-1034) 980 1034 Ebles I de Comborn (953-1030)
Pappa of Normandy (c990-?) 990 Gautier de Saint-Valery (c977-?)
Fressenda of Normandy (c995-c1057)


Offspring of Richard I, Duke of Normandy (933-996) and unknown parent
Name Birth Death Joined with
Godefroi de Brionne (962-aft1023) 962 Brionne, Eure, Normandie, France 1023 Fécamp, Normandie, France Hawise de Guines (c958-1015)
Guillaume I of Eu (985-1058) 985 1058 Lanceline of Harcourt (1003-1069)


See Also

Bibliography

  • Crouch, David (2007). The Normans: The History of a Dynasty. Hambledon Continuum. 
  • Douglas, David C. (1964). William The Conqueror. University of California Press. 
  • Neveux, François (2008). A Brief History of The Normans. Constable and Robinson. 
  • Potts, Cassandra (1997). Monastic Revival and Regional Identity in Early Normandy. The Boydell Press. 
  • Searle, Eleanor (1988). Predatory Kinship and the Creation of Norman Power, 840-1066. University of California Press. 
  • Van Houts, Elizabeth M.C., ed (1992a). The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni. I. Clarendon Press. 
  • Van Houts, E., ed (1992b). The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni. 2. Clarendon Press. 
  • Van Houts, Elisabeth, ed (2000). The Normans in Europe. Manchester University Press. 

External Links

Ancestry Trees

Contemporary Resources

Richard the Good, Duke of Normandy, lived during the 10th and early 11th centuries, so there are limited contemporary references available. However, there are some primary sources and modern works that provide information about his life and times. Here are a few:

  1. The Annals of Flodoard: This is a primary source that covers the years 919-966 and includes some information about Richard the Good's rule.
  2. The Chronicle of Hugh of Fleury: Another primary source that covers the years 925-1024 and includes information about Richard's reign.
  3. The Life of William the Conqueror by Orderic Vitalis: This is a later source, written in the 12th century, but it includes information about Richard the Good and his role in the history of Normandy.
  4. The Normans in Europe by Elizabeth van Houts: This book provides an overview of the Norman dynasty, including Richard the Good's reign, and is a good starting point for further reading.
  5. The Normans: From Raiders to Kings by Lars Brownworth: This book provides an accessible overview of the Norman dynasty, including Richard the Good's reign, and is a good option for those new to the topic.
  6. The Normans: The History of a Dynasty by David Crouch: This book provides a more detailed look at the Norman dynasty, including Richard the Good's reign, and is a good choice for those looking for a more in-depth study.

Royal Succession Charts

French nobility
Preceded by
Richard I
Duke of Normandy
996–1026
Succeeded by
Richard III

References

  1. ^ a b c d Van Houts 2000, p. 56-57.
  2. ^ a b c d Neveux 2008, p. 74.
  3. ^ a b c d Crouch 2007, p. 33-34.
  4. ^ a b c Neveux 2008, p. 94-95.
  5. ^ Searle 1988, p. 132.
  6. ^ a b Douglas 1964, p. 160.
  7. ^ Van Houts 2000, p. 20-21.
  8. ^ Van Houts 1992b, p. 17-19.
  9. ^ Crouch 2007, p. 32.
  10. ^ Van Houts 1992a, p. xx.
  11. ^ Van Houts 1992a, p. 67.
  12. ^ Searle 1988, p. 128.
  13. ^ Stéphane William Gondoin, "Fortified castles in the time of William the Conqueror ", Norman Heritage , no . 94 , July-August-September 2015, p. 36 ( ISSN 1271-6006 ).]
  14. ^ [Norman Worlds]
  15. ^ Douglas 1964, p. 15.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Van Houts 2000, p. 294.
  17. ^ Potts 1997, p. 27.
  18. ^ Douglas 1964, p. 31.


Footnotes (including sources)

Phlox, AMK152, Rtol, Bergsmit, Thurstan, MainTour

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