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Rostislav Mikhailovich, Ban of Slavonia, Duke of Mačva, Prince of Lutsk, Prince of Chernigov, Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Halych, Grand Prince of Kiev, was born circa 1214 to Mikhail Vsevolodovich of Chernigov (1179-1246) and Yelena Romanovna of Halych (c1190-c1237) and died 1262 of unspecified causes. He married Anna of Hungary (c1226-aft1271) 1243 JL . Alfred the Great (849-899)/s, Charlemagne (747-814)/s, Rollo of Normandy (860-932)/s.

Rostislav Mikhailovich (Rostislav Slavonsky, Rostislav Galitsky; 1227 - 1262 , Belgrade ) - Prince of Novgorod ( 1229 - 1230 ), Prince Galitsky ( 1238 , 1241 ), Prince of Chernigov ( 1241 - 1243 ), the Ban of Slavonia ( 1247 - 1248 ) and Macevvy ( 1247 - 1248 ) and Macchyva ( 514 ); 1248 - 1262 ). Son of Mikhail Vsevolodovich and daughterRoman Mstislavich Galitsky Maria.

Biography

Reign in Novgorod

Rostislav was first mentioned in the annals in connection with the events in Novgorod . In winter of 1228-1229 , when the come due to strong autumn rains hunger Novgorod asked the prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich cancel one kind of tax - zabozhnichya . Yaroslav himself was not in the city at that time, he left his young sons Fyodor Yaroslavich and Aleksandr Yaroslavich under the supervision of loyal people. Fearing the turmoil usual for Novgorod in such situations, in February 1229, the tiuns secretly took the princes out of the city. Novgorodians regarded this as the refusal of Yaroslav from their demands and called for the reign of Mikhail Vsevolodovich, the father of Rostislav.

Mikhail Vsevolodovich abolished the zabozhniche in the Novgorod land for 5 years for the smerds who had gone into new lands, also appointed the Vodovik Outlets in Novgorod to be the posadnik in Novgorod. Then, having established a relative order in Novgorod, he went to Chernigov , the son of Rostislav, “having created princely tonsure ” in the Novgorod Sofia Cathedral, to mark the fact that the Novgorod reign was to pass from father to son. The tonsure was consecrated in May at the beginning of the same year by Archbishop Spiridon. Such a ceremony has not yet been performed on the sons of the Novgorod princes. The rite consisted in the fact that the archbishop in St. Sophia Cathedral, after reading the prayer, in the laborer, laid in the baptism after the hair, had solemnly tonsured the hair of the young prince. Rostislav was left by his father to reign in Novgorod under the supervision of Vladyka Spiridon and posadnik Vnizheda.

Taking advantage of the prince's infancy, the party hostile to Outlaw began to organize riots in Novgorod, and he began to settle old scores and crack down on the rebels. In the same year in Novgorod was a terrible pestilence, which killed many people. The party loyal to him was expecting the arrival of Mikhail Vsevolodovich so that he would restore order and deal with the people who were holding the side of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. However, by that time, Mikhail Vsevolodovich and Yaroslav were reconciled, and the Chernigov prince did not undertake anything against Yaroslav’s supporters.

Outlets brought Rostislav in Torzhok, away from all these misfortunes. Novgorodians, not seeing support from the Prince of Chernigov, were sent to tell Rostislav that his father had “changed them” and that now they could find another prince instead of him, after which they again called Yaroslav. Vnezd Vodovik retired from Rostislavom and tysyatskim Boris Negochivitsem Chernigov [1] . After the campaign of the Grand Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal to the Chernigov land in 1231, Mikhail Vsevolodovich abandoned the struggle for Novgorod.

Reign in Halych

In 1235, Mikhail Vsevolodovich attacked Daniil Galichsky, an ally of his enemy, Prince Vladimir Ryurikovich, in the struggle for Kiev, who together ruined Chernigov lands. He was defeated in the Battle of Torchesk (1235) and lost Galich. The following year, Mikhail, together with Rostislav, spoke at Vladimir-Volynsky , where Daniel was, but it became known that the Polovtsy had invaded Galician lands , so they had to return.

In the summer of that year, Daniel and his brother [[Vasilko[[ joined their forces to regain Galich, but Mikhail and Rostislav shut up in the city, having serious forces and a contingent of allied Hungarian troops, and the Romanovich had to abandon their plans. When the Hungarians were recalled from Galich, Daniil Romanovich again made an attempt to regain the city. Mikhail Vsevolodovich tried to negotiate with him, giving him Przemysl.

In 1238, after the defeat of the North-Eastern Russia by the Mongol-Tatars and the death of his brother, Grand Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal Yuri Vsevolodovich, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich reigned in Kiev, returned to Vladimir-Suzdal land to occupy the throne of the Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. Mikhail Vsevolodovich took advantage of this to seize Kiev. In Galicia, he left his son Rostislav. Having occupied Kiev, Mikhail and Rostislav took away Przemysl from Daniil Romanovich.

Winter 1238 / 1239 the year Mikhail Gromov organized invasion of Lithuania, whose rulers plundered the land of his ally in the fight against Daniel Konrad Mazowiecki . Rostislav took part in this campaign, and he came out, taking almost all the troops from Halych and leaving only a small garrison there.

Daniil Romanovich took advantage of the departure of Rostislav and his supporters and occupied Halycg with the support of a number of representatives of the local boyars.

The struggle for the principality of Halych

Rostislav went to Hungary to see King Bela IV , where, after the Mongol invasion of the Chernigov-Seversk lands, his father Michael also fled. Rostislav tried to get married to Bela's daughter, but he did not see the advantages in this marriage and, moreover, asked both princes to leave his country.

Michael and Rostislav went to Mazovia , where they decided to make peace with Daniel. Mikhail Vsevolodovich sent ambassadors to the Galician prince who told him that he admitted his mistakes in relation to Daniel and promised never to maliciously attack him and abandon attempts to seize Galich. Daniel Romanovich invited him to Volyn, promised to give Mikhail Vsevolodovich Kiev , and Rostislav Mikhailovich gave Lutsk .

Having left for Kiev, Mikhail Vsevolodovich left Rostislav, Prince of Chernigov, who, unlike his father, did not give up the fight for Galich. From Chernigov, he spent two campaigns on Daniel.

In the same year of 1241, together with the Bolokhov princes, Rostislav besieged Bakotu (an important supplier of salt for the Galician cities). The siege, however, was unsuccessful, and he had to return to Chernigov. For this, the Romanovich immediately devastated the Bolokhov lands, not affected by the Mongol invasion, because they agreed to pay the grain tribute.

During the second campaign, Rostislav, with the help of the influential Galician boyar Volodislav Yuryevich, managed to take Przemysl and Galich for a short time. He was also supported by the bishops of the two local dioceses. In Przemysl, he planted to reign of Konstantin Vladimirovich of the kind of prince of the princes.

However, Rostislav did not rule for long in the Galician land. Having learned about the approach of the troops of Daniel and Vasilko, both he and Konstantin Peremyshlsky fled. Romanovich began to be persecuted, but after learning that the Tatars were returning from Hungary and entered their lands, they refused to chase. After passing through the Galician land, the Tatars defeated Rostislav in a place that the chronicler defines as a small pine forest. So he fled again to Hungary.

After the Mongol invasion and the beginning of the war with the Austrian duke, the Hungarian king Bela IV changed his mind about the marriage of his daughter to the Russian prince. In 1243 Rostislav married Princess Anne of Hungary , daughter of the King of Hungary Bela IV .

Upon learning of this, Mikhail Vsevolodovich considered that his plan to form an alliance with the Arpad dynasty was implemented, and went to a wedding in Hungary to hold talks with the king. However, he received a sudden rebuff from Bela, for some unknown reason, being an unwanted guest, and returned to Chernigov in the extreme degree of indignation, renouncing Rostislav.

Together with the Hungarians given by the Hungarian troops, Rostislav made two more attempts to seize the Galician lands.

In 1244 he led the Hungarian troops to Przemysl and captured the city, but Prince Daniel arrived there, who freed the city from the Hungarians. Rostislav fled to Hungary.

The following year, he returned with more numerous forces of the Hungarians and Poles and laid siege to the city of Yaroslavl north of Peremyshl. Rostislav boasted to the army: “If I only knew where Daniel and Vasilko were, I would go to them with ten people.” He staged a knightly tournament in front of the city walls, in the course of which, fighting with the Poor Vorush, he fell from his horse and dislocated his shoulder. Chronicler notes that "omen was not good."

Daniel and Vasilko came under Yaroslavl, and for Rostislav the siege really ended in defeat on August 17, 1245 . Near Rostislav, a horse was killed in a battle, and one of the Hungarian nobles gave him his. The prince fled to Hungary.

Ban of Slavonia and Machvy

King Bela, apparently, appreciated Rostislav. In his decree, in which he thanks the noble who provided Rostislav with his horse, Bela calls the prince "his favorite son-in-law." After this, the defeat and murder of his father in the Horde (1246) in Hungary, Rostislav received in custody from his father-in-law Comitat Bereg and Fuser Castle, then the Banat of Slavonia , and in 1247 the specially created Banat Machva - between the Danube, Driny, Sava and Morava rivers with the capital in Belgrade.

However, Rostislav did not leave attempts to regain the Galician principality. In 1249, together with the Hungarian troops, he again invaded these lands, on Daniel, and this time he defeated him on the San river . Finally, in 1250, King Bela decided to conclude a peace treaty with Daniel of Galicia and at a meeting in Zvolen promised that he would no longer help Rostislav Mikhailovich in the war against Daniel.

Not satisfied with his position, Rostislav got involved in some military adventures on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire - perhaps it’s about the struggle of King Bela IV for Austria in 1252-1544, as a result of which Wiener Neustadt and the Duchy of Styria passed under the authority of the Hungarian king. .

Serbian-Croatian sources also report that Rostislav also captured Novogrudok for some time , but was knocked out from there by the Lithuanian princes.

= Fight for Bulgaria

In 1255 , in commemoration of the peace treaty between Hungary and Bulgaria, Bela IV gave out his granddaughter, the daughter of Rostislav, for Bulgarian Tsar Mikhail I Assen. This was a good reason for Rostislav to start interfering in the internal affairs of Bulgaria.

In the same year, the Bulgarian army entered Thrace and defeated the Nicene people near Dimotika. Rostislav Mikhailovich headed a delegation of envoys who went to Regina to conclude peace between Bulgaria and the Nicene Empire. Byzantine statesman and historian George Acropolitan, who was engaged for peace negotiations by the Niceneans, said that they had bribed Rostislav with more than a thousand gifts, including race horses, jewels, expensive fabrics and things. As a result, he agreed without agreement with the tsar, according to which the Bulgarians returned all the occupied territories to the Nicaeans without compensation, Nikaia received most of the Bulgarian lands in Thrace and Macedonia .

Mikhail Asen refused to recognize this agreement, which led to his confrontation with the nobility and the folding of the plot. In 1256, the young king was mortally wounded during a hunt by his cousin Koloman, who himself headed Bulgaria and married the widow of the deceased, Rostislav's daughter, in order to give his accession the appearance of heredity.

In 1256, Rostislav, under the pretext of protecting his daughter, came with an army to Tyrnovo. Koloman II Assen fled the city and was soon killed in unclear circumstances.

The boyars gave Rostislav his daughter, but he could not take the city, he retreated and settled in Vidin, the Bulgarian king received his titles, and the Hungarians recognized him as the king of Bulgaria. Rostislav even began to mint coins with his image. He tried to establish himself in the country, but was not accepted by the nobility of Bulgaria and could not take control of the capital.

At the same time, two more applicants declared themselves kings of Bulgaria. The boyars who held Tyrnovo nominated Konstantin Tikh from Skopje to the kings of one of them , and in the south-east of the country Mitso the husband of the sister of Mikhail Asen was proclaimed king .

In 1257, Rostislav, with most of his troops, moved to Bohemia to help his father-in-law against King Premysl Otakar II . So Vidin region (the future Vidin kingdom), up to Branchev (which belonged to Rostislav), was easily taken by the new tsar of Bulgaria, Konstantin Tikh in 1261 .

Rostislav contributed to the conclusion of peace with Bohemia, in 1261 by giving out his daughter in Vienna as King Premysl Otakar.

After peace was concluded, the Hungarians took Vidin and restored Rostislav Mikhailovich as governor of the Vidin region in March 1261 .

Up to his death, Rostislav called himself Prince of Halyvch. He died in Belgrade in 1262.

Family and children

Wife: (from 1243 ) Princess Anna of Hungary (1226/1227 - about 1285), daughter of the King of Hungary Bela IV from the Arpad dynasty . Seven children were born in the marriage, including:

Bela , Ban Machvi (1262-1727) and Bosnia (1270-1,272), was killed in November 1272 Michael , ban of Bosnia (1262–1270), was killed in 1270 Anna (Elizaveta) Rostislavna (died 1272/1298); was married three times. Husbands: Michael I Assen (c. 1238 - c. 1256), king of Bulgaria; Koloman II Assen (died about 1256), king of Bulgaria; (from 1260) Moisz II Daroi ( Hungarian. Moys Daroi ) (1210–1280 / 1281), Palatine of Hungary. She had from him a daughter Erzhebet Daroi, who was the wife of Miklos Mödgyes , governor of Transylvania , and one of the ancestors in the 7th tribe of the King of Poland Stephen Batory . Kunguta (Kunigunda) Rostislavna (1245-1285); was married 2 times. Husbands: (from 1261) Premysl Ottokar II , King of the Czech Republic (from 1284) Zavish from Falkenstein ( Czech Záviš z Falkenštejna ; died 08/24/1290), Czech aristocrat, Falkenstein and Rosenberg's burgrave . Agrippina Rostislavna (died 1305), in 1265, married Leszek II of Black , one of the Polish princes. According to one of the hypotheses, the Bulgarian king Mitso Asen could have been the son of Rostislav .

See also Artemy (Bishop of Galicia) The war for the unification of the Galicia-Volyn principality



Children



Offspring of Rostislav Mikhailovich and Anna of Hungary (c1226-aft1271)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Michael of Bosnia (?-1271)
Béla of Mačva (?-1272)
Daughter
Kunigunda (1245-1285) 1245 9 September 1285 Prague, Czech Republic Ottokar II of Bohemia (c1230-1278) Ottokar II of Bohemia (c1230-1278) Záviš of Falkenštejn (c1250-1290)
Agrippina (?-c1306)













Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

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