Sharukan near the southern limits of Russia: shown at the right tributary of the Seversky Donets, the Donets River (now the Uda ), in the area of ​​the unspecified Lopan River (Kharkov region)

Sharukan (on behalf of the Polovtsian Sharu Khan) - the city of the XI - beginning of XIII centuries on the territory of the land Polovtsian . Also in the Russian annals was called Osev .


The exact location of the city is not installed. According to historians, localization is most likely on the Kharkov (right) side of the Seversky Donets (according to the chronicles, in the military transition from it), in the area of ​​the cities of Chuguev [1](possibly named after the Polovtsian Khan Chugai, [2] 28 km from Kharkov ) - Zmiev [3] (42 km from Kharkov ) - Kharkov . [4] Academician B. A. Rybakov identified Sharukan with the Donetsk settlement (10 km from the center of Kharkov).

In local history sources of Kharkiv Oblast, this city is also located near the city of Izyum . A. P. Chernykh (Donetsk) was looking for Sharukan on the left bank of the Seversky Donets east of Red Oskol .

There are theories about the location of the city practically in modern Kharkov - on University Hill (Prof. Aristov) [2] or near the village of Rogan [5] . Some historians believe that Sharukan / Sharuk-Akhan / Haruk-Akhan / Harukan is the etymological source of the name of the hydronym Kharkov , which gave the name to the toponym - the city of Kharkov. (Officially, the history of modern Kharkov begins in the XVII century ).

Origin of the name[]

The word "Sharukan" is of Turkic origin.[ source not specified 120 days ] According to the linguistic version, this is “the shepherds' camp”: from the “ball” - a shepherd and “can” - a place.[ source not specified 120 days ] According to the historical version, Sharukan (s) is the name of the Polovtsian Khan.


Sharukan was considered a Polovtsian town, but the basis of its population were sedentary and self-governing jars ( Alans ).[ source not specified 120 days ] This conclusion can be made on the basis of the Tale of Bygone Years, where it is said that Yaropolk brought the Prince's daughter from Don Yaska and also that the inhabitants of the settlement met Russian soldiers with fish and wine in 1111 .


Supposedly, the city of Sharukan arose on the basis of the Alans settlement , had a mixed population and was a winter refuge for the Polovtsy . The city consisted of a relatively small number of stone buildings and a much larger number of nomads' yurts.

In 1111 and 1116, Sharukan was taken by the troops of Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh and other princes.

In 1111, the troops of Vladimir Monomakh took Sharukan. From ancient manuscripts it is known that the battle of 1111 began because of the clash of the opposing forces of hunters. The men of Sharukan violated the prohibitions that were inviolable under Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh and were severely punished. [6] The exact dates of the battle for Sharukan are unknown, but, according to the preserved chronicles, it did not last long.

In the 12th and early 13th centuries, Sharukan was neglected. In 1223 it was destroyed by the Mongols during a raid of the corps under the command of Jebe and Subedei. The Polovtsians fled to the west, hoping to find allies in the face of Russia. After the Battle of Kalka , the town’s population was preserved for some time, but the repeated arrival of the Mongols, led by Batu, made the Polovtsians leave forever ( 1237 ).


  1. ^ Против признания Чугуева Шаруканью Е.Миллер и Д.Багалей выдвигают два возражения: 1. Топонимическое — историческое название Чугуев происходит не от хана Шарукана, а, скорее, от хана Чугая. 2. Географическое — маршрут похода русских князей к Шарукани идёт от Дона (современного Донца); Чугуев же находится на самом Донце. Д. Багалей, Д. Миллер. История города Харькова за 250 лет его существования, т.1, гл.1.
  2. ^ a b Prof. Д. Багалей, Д. Миллер. (1905). "Том первый (XVII-XVIII вв.)". История города Харькова за 250 лет его существования (с 1655-го по 1905-й год). Историческая монография.. 1 (1-е изд ed.). Kharkov: Издательство Харьковскаго городского общественнаго управления. pp. 568.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "МБ 1т" defined multiple times with different content
  3. ^ Домонгольский город на месте самого Змиёва назывался Змеев (город), а не Шарукань. Ю.Коловрат. Змеевское городище. Х, 2008
  4. ^ Т. Ф. Давидич.. ISBN 978-966-1553-27-8. 
  5. ^ Шарукань. Сайт «Дали зовут».
  6. ^ Viktoria S. (11.11.11). "— Шарукань. Охота.". Oxota. Retrieved 2017-11-07.