|— State of Austria —|
|• Landeshauptmann||Hermann Schützenhöfer (ÖVP)|
|• Total||16,401.04 km2 (6,332.48 sq mi)|
|• Density||74/km2 (190/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||AT-6|
|Votes in Bundesrat||9 (of 62)|
Styria (German: Steiermark, German pronunciation: [ˈʃtaɪ.ɐmaʁk] ( listen), Slovene/Croatian: Štajerska, Hungarian: Stájerország) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. In area it is the second largest of the nine Austrian federated states, covering 16,401 km2 (6,332 sq mi). It borders Slovenia and the Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Burgenland, and Carinthia. The population (as of 2011) was 1,210,700. The capital city is Graz which had 276,526 inhabitants at the beginning of 2015.
The March of Styria derived its name from the original seat of its ruling Otakar dynasty: Steyr, in today's Upper Austria. In German, the area is still called "Steiermark" while in English the Latin name "Styria" is used. The ancient link between Steyr and Styria is also apparent in their nearly identical coats of arms, a white Panther on a green background.
The term "Upper Styria" (German: Obersteiermark) used by an Austrian refers to the northern and northwestern parts of the federal-state (districts Liezen, Murau, Judenburg, Knittelfeld, Leoben, Bruck an der Mur, and Mürzzuschlag). The term "West Styria" (Weststeiermark) is used for the districts to the west of Graz (Voitsberg, Deutschlandsberg, western part of the district Leibnitz); the districts east of Graz (Weiz, Hartberg, Feldbach, Fürstenfeld, and Radkersburg) are referred to as "East Styria" (Oststeiermark). The western and eastern parts of the district Graz-Umgebung may or may not be considered parts of West and East Styria, respectively. The southern parts of the Duchy of Styria, which have formed part of Yugoslavia or Slovenia since 1918 (with the exception of World War II), were (and sometimes colloquially still are) referred to as "Lower Styria" (Untersteiermark; Slovene: Štajerska).
During early Roman times, Styria was inhabited by Celtic tribes. After its conquest by the Romans, the eastern part of what is now Styria was part of Pannonia, while the western one was included in Noricum. During the Barbarian invasions, it was conquered or crossed by the Visigoths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, the Rugii, the Lombards, the Franks and the Avars. In 595 the latter were defeated by the Slavs, who thenceforth ruled it.
In 1180 Styria separated from the Duchy of Carinthia and became a Grand Duchy of its own; in 1192 it became part of Austria. After the hereditary subdivision of the latter, Styria formed the central part of Inner Austria. Styria developed culturally and economically under Archduke John of Inner Austria between 1809 and 1859. In 1918, after World War I, it was divided into a northern section (forming what is the current Austrian state), and a southern one, called Lower Styria, inhabited mostly by ethnic Slovenians, and which was annexed to Yugoslavia, and later in Slovenia.
As elsewhere in the developed world, there has been a shift away from the manufacturing sector towards the service sector in Styria. This has had negative consequences for the industrial regions of upper Styria which have suffered a steady decline in population in recent years.
In 2004 Styria had the strongest economic growth rate in Austria at 3.8%—mainly due to the Graz area which saw strong economic growth that year and has continued to grow in economic and population terms since then.
Styria is home to more than 150 cleantech companies, of which one dozen are world technology leaders in their field. The cleantech revenue of Styrian companies totals €2.7 billion. This equals to 8 percent of the Gross Regional Product (GRP), and is one of the highest concentrations of leading clean technology companies in Europe. The companies have an average (real) growth rate of 22 percent per year—well above the worldwide cleantech market growth of 18 percent per year. The region created roughly 2,000 additional green jobs in 2008 alone.
The state is divided into 13 districts (Bezirke), one of them a statutory city.
- Liezen (with the subdistrict Gröbming)
The state had been a stronghold of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) since 1945. Graz however is a stronghold of the left-wing Communist Party (KPÖ). The governor (Austrian political term: Landeshauptmann) has usually been an ÖVP member.
In the latest elections for state parliament the Social Democrats (SPÖ) under their regional chairman Franz Voves won the majority after the ÖVP had damaged its credibility through scandals and the secession of a high-ranking party member who took part in the 2005 elections after setting up his own party. In these elections, the KPÖ also received many votes after it had gained much popularity through its role in local politics in Graz during the preceding few years. The two right-wing populist parties, the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) and the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ), failed to win seats.
- Palman (fl. 1310–1363), knight and mercenary commander of the Serbian Empire
- Johann Joseph Fux (1660–1741), composer and music theorist, wrote Gradus ad Parnassum – a composition manual used by Beethoven and Mozart
- Archduke John of Austria (1782–1859)
- Johann Puch (1862–1914), founded Johann Puch Erste Steiermärkische Fahrrad-Fabriks-Aktiengesellschaft at Graz in 1899.
- Peter Rosegger (1843–1918), honoured poet
- Jochen Rindt (1942–1970), Formula 1 World Champion
- Bert Isatitsch (1911–1994), first president of the International Luge Federation
- Frank Stronach (b. 1932), founder of Magna International, billionaire
- Dr. Helmut Marko (b. 1943), former racing driver
- Klaus Maria Brandauer (b. 1944), actor and director
- Dietrich Mateschitz (b. 1944), founder and CEO of Red Bull, billionaire
- Elfriede Jelinek (b. 1946), Nobel Prize in Literature winner
- Arnold Schwarzenegger (b. 1947), bodybuilder, film actor and former Governor of California
- Wolfgang Muthspiel (b. 1965), jazz composer and guitarist
- Thomas Muster (b. 1967), former World No. 1 tennis player
- Ulla Weigerstorfer (b. 1967), Miss Austria 1987 and Miss World 1987
- Renate Götschl (b. 1975), alpine skiing World Champion
- Elisabeth Görgl (b. 1981), professional alpine skier
- Eva Rueber-Staier (b. 1951), Miss Austria 1969, Miss World 1969
- Josef Allerberger (1924–2010), Austrian-German sniper 3. Gebirgsdivision
- Robert Stolz (b. 1880), composer born in Graz
- Getty Kaspers (b. 1948), lead vocals of Dutch band Teach-In, who won the 1975 Eurovision Song Contest.
- Conchita Wurst (b. 1988), winner Eurovision Song Contest 2014, European superstar
- Lower Styria
- ^ Lesser, Shawn. "Top 10 cleantech cluster organizations for 2010". Clean Tech Group. http://cleantech.com/news/5640/top-10-cleantech-clusters. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- Media related to Steiermark at Wikimedia Commons
- Styria travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Imperial Austria: Treasures of Art, Arms and Armor from the State of Styria – The Canadian Museum of Civilization
- Official Tourism Website of Styria