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Sumner County, Tennessee
Old-hickory-lake-bledsoe-tn1.jpg
Old Hickory Lake at Bledsoe Creek State Park
Seal of Sumner County, Tennessee
Seal
Map of Tennessee highlighting Sumner County
Location in the state of Tennessee
Map of the U.S. highlighting Tennessee
Tennessee's location in the U.S.
Founded November 1786
Named for Jethro Sumner[1]
Seat Gallatin
Largest city Hendersonville
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

543 sq mi (1,406 km²)
529 sq mi (1,370 km²)
14 sq mi (36 km²), 2.5
Population
 - (2020)
 - Density

196,281
371.04/sq mi (143/km²)
Congressional district 6th
Website www.sumnertn.org

Sumner County is a county located on the central northern border of the U.S. state of Tennessee, in what is called Middle Tennessee.

As of the 2020 census, the population was 196,281.[2] Its county seat is Gallatin,[3] and its largest city is Hendersonville. The county is named for American Revolutionary War hero General Jethro Sumner.

Sumner County is part of the Nashville-DavidsonMurfreesboroFranklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county is made up of eight cities, including Gallatin, Goodlettsville, Hendersonville, Millersville, Mitchellville, Portland, Westmoreland, and White House. Sumner County is 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Nashville, Tennessee.

History[]

Prior to the European colonization of North America, the county had been inhabited by various cultures of Native Americans for several thousand years. Nomadic Paleo and Archaic hunter-gatherer campsites, as well as substantial Woodland and Mississippian-period occupation sites and burial grounds, can be found scattered throughout the county, particularly along the waterways. The majority of these sites exist along natural waterways, with the highest concentration occurring along what is now known as the Cumberland River. Mississippian period earthwork mounds can still be seen in Hendersonville, and most notably, at Castalian Springs. Long before Europeans entered the area, Native Americans made use of the natural hot springs for their medicinal and healing properties.

British colonial longhunters traveled into the area as early as the 1760s, following existing Indian and buffalo trails. By the early 1780s, they had erected several trading posts in the region. The most prominent was Mansker's Station, which was built by Kasper Mansker near a salt lick (where modern Goodlettsville would develop). Another was Bledsoe's Station, built by Isaac Bledsoe at Castilian Springs.[1] Sumner County was organized in 1786, just 3 years after the end of the American Revolutionary War, when Tennessee was still the western part of North Carolina.

The county was developed for agriculture: tobacco and hemp, and blooded livestock. Numerous settlers came from central Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, where these were the most important products. Middle Tennessee had fertile lands that could be used for similar crops and supported high-quality livestock as well. The larger planters depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans, but Middle Tennessee had a lower proportion of slaves in the population than in West Tennessee, the plantation area of Memphis and the Delta, where cotton was cultivated.

During the American Civil War, most of Tennessee was occupied by Union troops from 1862. This led to a breakdown in civil order in many areas.[4] The Union commander, Eleazer A. Paine, was based at Gallatin, the county seat. He was notoriously cruel and had suspected spies publicly executed without trial in the town square.[5] He was eventually replaced because of his mistreatment of the people.

In 1873 the county was hit hard by the fourth cholera pandemic of the century, which had begun about 1863 in Asia. It eventually reached North America and was spread by steamboat passengers who traveled throughout the waterways, especially in the South on the Mississippi River and its tributaries. An estimated 120 persons died of cholera in Sumner County in 1873, mostly during the summer. The disease was spread mainly through contaminated water, due to the lack of sanitation. About four-fifths of the county's victims were African Americans. Many families, both black and white, lost multiple members.[6] In the United States overall, about 50,000 persons died of cholera in the 1870s.[6]

Geography[]

Signs indicating the Tennessee State and Sumner County borders

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 543 square miles (1,410 km2), of which 529 square miles (1,370 km2) is land and 14 square miles (36 km2) (2.5%) is water.[7]

Sumner County is located in Middle Tennessee on the state's northern border with Kentucky. The Cumberland River was important in early trade and transportation for this area, as it flows into the Ohio River to the west. That leads to the Mississippi River, and downriver to the major port of New Orleans. Sumner County is in the Greater Nashville metropolitan area.

Adjacent counties[]

State protected areas[]

  • Bledsoe Creek State Park
  • Cragfont State Historic Site
  • Gallatin Steam Plant Wildlife Management Area
  • Old Hickory Lock and Dam Wildlife Management Area (part)
  • Rock Castle State Historic Site
  • Taylor Hollow State Natural Area
  • Wynnewood State Historic Site

Highways[]

  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 I-65
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 US-31W
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 US-31E
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 US-41
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 US-231
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link SR|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev SR]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link SR|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev SR]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link SR|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev SR]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link SR|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev SR]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link Sec|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev Sec]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link Sec|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev Sec]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link Sec|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev Sec]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link Sec|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev Sec]]
  • Template:Jct/plate/TN/1 [[Template:Infobox road/TN/link SR|Template:Infobox road/TN/abbrev SR]]

Demographics[]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1800 4,616
1810 13,792 198.8%
1820 19,211 39.3%
1830 20,569 7.1%
1840 22,415 9.0%
1850 22,717 1.3%
1860 22,030 −3.0%
1870 23,711 7.6%
1880 23,625 −0.4%
1890 23,668 0.2%
1900 26,072 10.2%
1910 25,621 −1.7%
1920 27,708 8.1%
1930 28,622 3.3%
1940 32,719 14.3%
1950 33,533 2.5%
1960 36,217 8.0%
1970 56,106 54.9%
1980 85,790 52.9%
1990 103,281 20.4%
2000 130,449 26.3%
2010 160,645 23.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790-1960[9] 1900–1990[10]
1990-2000[11] 2010–2020[2]

Age pyramid Sumner County[12]

2020 census[]

Sumner County racial composition[13]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 155,169 79.05%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 15,537 7.92%
Native American 476 0.24%
Asian 2,932 1.49%
Pacific Islander 116 0.06%
Other/Mixed 9,181 4.68%
Hispanic or Latino 12,870 6.56%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 196,281 people, 70,098 households, and 51,272 families residing in the county.

2010 census[]

As of the census of 2010,[14] there were 160,645 people, 60,975 households, and 44,593 families living in the county. The population density was 303.68 persons per square mile. The housing unit density was 115.26 units per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 89.67% White, 6.42% African American, 1.02% Asian, 0.29% Native American, 0.07% Pacific Islander, and 1.45% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origins constituted 3.93% of the population.

Out of all of the households, 26.08% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 57.05% were married couples, 4.37% had a male householder with no wife present, 11.72% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.87% were non-families. 22.07% of all householders were made up of individuals, and 8.29% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.05.

The age distribution was 25.29% under the age of 18, 62.10% ages 18 to 64, and 12.61% ages 65 and over. The median age was 38.6 years. 51.20% of the population were females, and 48.80% were males.

The median household income in the county was $54,916, and the median family income was $65,313. Males had a median income of $46,606, versus $35,256 for females. The per capita income was $26,014. About 7.3% of families and 10.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.9% of those under the age of 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 and over.

2000 census[]

At the 2000 census there were 130,449 people, 48,941 households, and 37,048 families living in the county. The population density was 246 people per square mile (95/km2). There were 51,657 housing units at an average density of 98 per square mile (38/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 91.49% White, 5.78% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, and 0.96% from two or more races. 1.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[15] In 2000 Of the 48,941 households 36.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.30% were non-families. 20.30% of households were one person and 7.20% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.04.

The age distribution was 26.30% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, and 10.70% 65 or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males.

The median household income was $46,030 and the median family income was $52,125. Males had a median income of $36,875 versus $25,720 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,164. About 6.20% of families and 8.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 10.00% of those age 65 or over.


Education[]

Public schools[]

Schools in the county are governed by the Sumner County Board of Education. The twelve-member group consists of eleven elected representatives from each of the eleven educational districts in the county, as well as the Director of Schools. The members serve staggered four-year terms; the Director serves under contract with the Board of Education. The board conducts monthly meetings that are open to the public.

Private schools[]

  • Saint John Vianney Catholic Elementary School (K–8)
  • Southside Christian School (K–12)
  • Sumner Academy (K–8)
  • John Paul II High School
  • Aaron Academy (K-12)

Colleges[]

  • Volunteer State Community College
  • Union University (Hendersonville Campus)
  • Welch College

Communities[]

Cities[]

Town[]

  • Westmoreland

Census-designated places[]

  • Bethpage
  • Bransford
  • Castalian Springs
  • Cottontown
  • Fairfield
  • Graball
  • New Deal
  • Oak Grove
  • Shackle Island
  • Walnut Grove

Unincorporated communities[]

  • Bon Air
  • Brackentown
  • Cairo
  • Corinth

Notable people[]

Submarine innovator Horace Lawson Hunley was born in Sumner County on June 20, 1823. On October 15, 1863, Hunley, along with seven other crewmen, drowned while making a test dive in Charleston Harbor near Fort Pinckney. Following his death, the submarine, unofficially known as the "Fish Boat," was renamed the H.L. Hunley in his honor. On the night of February 17, 1864, the Hunley sank the USS Housatonic, making it the first submarine to sink an enemy vessel.

Watergate prosecutor and criminal defense trial lawyer James F. Neal was born and raised in Oak Grove and graduated from Sumner High School in Portland in 1947.

R&B National Recording Artist Nacole Rice was born in Sumner County.[16]

Politics[]

Though part of historically Democratic Middle Tennessee, Sumner County was one of the first counties in the region to switch to the Republican Party. It has voted for the GOP solidly in every election back to 1984, with the sole exception being Bill Clinton's victory in the county in 1992.

United States presidential election results for Sumner County, Tennessee[17]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 63,454 68.50% 27,680 29.88% 1,496 1.62%
2016 50,129 70.11% 18,161 25.40% 3,215 4.50%
2012 46,003 70.28% 18,579 28.38% 875 1.34%
2008 44,949 66.73% 21,487 31.90% 926 1.37%
2004 40,181 64.84% 21,458 34.63% 329 0.53%
2000 27,601 54.68% 22,118 43.82% 758 1.50%
1996 20,863 48.35% 19,205 44.50% 3,086 7.15%
1992 17,401 41.30% 19,387 46.01% 5,344 12.68%
1988 19,523 62.20% 11,702 37.28% 164 0.52%
1984 18,442 61.09% 11,535 38.21% 209 0.69%
1980 11,876 44.42% 14,150 52.93% 709 2.65%
1976 7,946 36.11% 13,848 62.93% 213 0.97%
1972 10,020 66.11% 4,596 30.32% 541 3.57%
1968 4,519 27.41% 4,376 26.54% 7,592 46.05%
1964 3,437 27.41% 9,102 72.59% 0 0.00%
1960 3,491 34.02% 6,687 65.17% 83 0.81%
1956 2,123 22.28% 7,368 77.34% 36 0.38%
1952 2,233 28.10% 5,674 71.40% 40 0.50%
1948 793 15.84% 3,688 73.67% 525 10.49%
1944 990 19.50% 4,076 80.30% 10 0.20%
1940 834 18.75% 3,591 80.75% 22 0.49%
1936 517 14.10% 3,146 85.82% 3 0.08%
1932 382 8.88% 3,893 90.47% 28 0.65%
1928 1,045 29.12% 2,541 70.82% 2 0.06%
1924 435 13.93% 2,631 84.25% 57 1.83%
1920 1,268 25.55% 3,674 74.03% 21 0.42%
1916 612 19.28% 2,487 78.33% 76 2.39%
1912 769 22.64% 2,477 72.94% 150 4.42%
1908 673 22.11% 2,343 76.97% 28 0.92%
1904 599 21.08% 2,178 76.64% 65 2.29%
1900 776 22.64% 2,589 75.55% 62 1.81%
1896 1,215 27.33% 3,171 71.34% 59 1.33%
1892 677 18.75% 2,121 58.74% 813 22.51%
1888 1,228 30.40% 2,778 68.76% 34 0.84%
1884 945 29.61% 2,225 69.71% 22 0.69%
1880 1,092 27.40% 2,893 72.60% 0 0.00%



See also[]

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Sumner County, Tennessee

References[]

  1. ^ a b Dee Gee Lester, "Sumner County," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: April 7, 2013.
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/47/47165.html. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  4. ^ Durham, Walter T. Rebellion Revisited: A History of Sumner County, Tennessee from 1861 to 1870 (Franklin, Tennessee: Hillsboro Press, 1999, 2nd edition)
  5. ^ Alice Williamson Diary, Duke University Special Collections Library, accessed 11 October 2007
  6. ^ a b "The Cholera Epidemic of 1873 in the United States. (The Introduction of Epidemic Cholera Through the Agency of the Mercantile Marine ... By John M. Woodworth. Reports Prepared Under the Direction of the Surgeon-General of the Army:-A. History of the Cholera Epidemic of 1873 by Ely McClellan. B. History of the Travels of Asiatic Cholera. By John C. Peters and Ely McClellan. C. Bibliography of Cholera. By John S. Billings.)". April 28, 1875. pp. 159–163. https://books.google.com/books?id=tphHxMxRJmMC&q=Cholera+deaths+in+1873+Sumner+Co%2C+TN&pg=PA704. 
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. http://www2.census.gov/geo/docs/maps-data/data/gazetteer/counties_list_47.txt. 
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html. 
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  10. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/tn190090.txt. 
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  12. ^ Based on 2000 census data
  13. ^ "Explore Census Data". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0500000US47165&tid=DECENNIALPL2020.P2. 
  14. ^ "U.S. Census website". https://www.census.gov. 
  15. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov. 
  16. ^ Biography, Nacole Rice official site; retrieved April 7, 2013.
  17. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS. 

Further reading[]

  • Cisco, Jay Guy (1909). Historic Sumner County, Tennessee, with Genealogies of the Bledsoe, Cage and Douglass Families and Genealogical Notes of Other Sumner Families. Nashville, Tennessee: Folk-Keelin Printing Company. OCLC 5692694972. 

External links[]

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Template:Sumner County, Tennessee

Coordinates: 36°28′N 86°28′W / 36.47, -86.46

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Sumner County, Tennessee. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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