Thomas of Woodstock was born 7 January 1355 in Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom to Edward III of England (1312-1377) and Philippa of Hainaut (1311-1369) and died 9 September 1397 Calais, Brittany, France of Murdered by agents of Richard II. He married Eleanor de Bohun (c1366-1399) 1376 JL . William I of England (1027-1087), Henry II of England (1133-1189), Charlemagne (747-814), Hugh Capet (c940-996), Rollo of Normandy (860-932), Alfred the Great (849-899)/s, Charlemagne (747-814)/s, Henry II of England (1133-1189)/s, Hugh Capet (c940-996)/s, William I of England (1027-1087)/s, Rollo of Normandy (860-932)/s.


Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, Duke of Aumale, KG (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the thirteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the fifth of the five sons of Edward III who survived to adulthood.

Early Life

Thomas was born after two short-lived sons, one of whom had also been baptised Thomas. He was born at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He married Eleanor de Bohun in 1376 and inherited the title Earl of Essex from his father-in-law, Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. The younger sister of Woodstock's wife, Mary de Bohun, was subsequently married to Henry "Bolingbroke," who eventually became Henry IV of England.

At the age of 22, in 1377, Woodstock was created Earl of Buckingham. In 1385 he received the title Duke of Aumale and at about the same time was created Duke of Gloucester.

Campaign in Brittany

Thomas of Woodstock commanded one of the largest campaigns of the period. This followed the Breton War of Succession, when English forces had supported John V, Duke of Brittany, against his rival for the Dukedom Charles of Blois, who was supported by France. At the head of an English army, John was victorious, but the French had continued to undermine his position, and he was later forced in to exile in England. He returned in 1379, supported by Breton barons who feared the annexation of Brittany by France. An English army was sent under Woodstock to support his position.

Death of Thomas

Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas's nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388, which significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

During that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.

As he was attainted as a traitor, his dukedom of Gloucester was forfeit. The title Earl of Buckingham was inherited by his son, who however died only two years later in 1399. Thomas of Woodstock's eldest daughter, Anne, married into the powerful Stafford family, who were Earls of Stafford. Her son, Humphrey Stafford was created Duke of Buckingham in 1444 and also inherited part of the de Bohun estates.

The other part of these estates — including the Earldom of Hereford, which had belonged to Mary de Bohun and had then become incorporated into the holdings of the House of Lancaster — became a matter of contention in the latter 15th century. The House of Lancaster had ruled England as kings from 1399 to 1461. When Henry VI was deposed by Edward IV of the House of York, Edward appropriated that half into the Crown property. Humphrey's grandson Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, however claimed those lands should have devolved to him instead. Unsuccessful under Edward, he was awarded these lands by Richard III, pending approval of Parliament. This was probably one of the Buckingham's motives in supporting Richard's accession.


Offspring of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun (c1366-1399)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Humphrey, 2nd Earl of Buckingham (c1381-1399)
Anne of Gloucester (1383-1438) 30 April 1383 Pleshey, Essex, England, United Kingdom 16 October 1438 Monmouthshire, Wales, United Kingdom Thomas Stafford (1375-1392)
Edmond Stafford (1378-1403)
William Bouchier (1386-1420)
Joan of Gloucester (1384-1400)
Isabel of Gloucester (1386-1402)
Philippe of Gloucester (c1388-c1388)

Footnotes (including sources)

‡ General