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Pre-History[]

  • c.500 BC: Celts inhabit much of Europe, and beginning to colonize the British Isles
  • 55 BC : First Roman raids on Britain under Julius Caesar
  • 43 AD : Roman occupation of Britain under Emperor Claudius (beginning of Roman rule of Britain)
  • 122-128 : Construction of Hadrian's Wall
  • 410-436 : Roman withdrawal from Britain

Old English[]

  • c.450 : Anglo-Saxon settlement (Angles, Frisians, Saxons, Jutes) of Britain begins
  • 450-480 : Earliest Old English inscriptions
  • 597 : St. Augustine arrives in Britain (beginning of Christian conversion of the Anglo-Saxons)
  • c.600 : Anglo-Saxon language covers most of modern-day England
  • c.660 : “Cædmon's Hymn” composed in Old English
  • 731 : The Venerable Bede writes “The Ecclesiastical History of the English People” (in Latin)
  • 792 : Viking raids of Britain begin "Viking Era"

Norman Conquest[]

  • 1066 : Norman Conquest - Battle of Hastings - Victory of William the Conqueror.
  • 1086 : Domesday Book - commissioned in December 1085 by William the Conqueror (1027-1087), who invaded England in 1066. The first draft was completed in August 1086 and contained records for 13,418 settlements in the 40 old English counties south of the rivers Ribble and Tees (the border with Scotland at the time). (See Category: Domesday Book landholder)

Reign of Henry I[]

Reign of Henry II[]


The Crusades[]

1095-1303 The Crusades (See Category:Crusader knights)

  • See Also Timeline of Crusades Major Events
  • 1061-1091 : Christian forces under the Normans invade and defeat Muslim ruled Sicily, but retain Muslim cultural influence under Norman rule.
  • 1095 : Pope Urban II preaches the first crusade, urging the Christians of Europe to march east to recover Jerusalem from the Muslims.
  • 1096 : Start of People's Crusade (ends in Hungary)
  • 1096 : Start of First Crusade
  • 1147-1149 : Second Crusade
  • 1189-1192 : Third Crusade brings famous Crusader leaders Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I
  • 1202-1204 : Fourth Crusade
  • 1212 : Children's Crusade begins and ends in tragedy
  • 1217-1221 : Fifth Crusade
  • 1248-1254 : Sixth Crusade
  • 1270 : Seventh Crusade
  • 1291 : Effective end of the Great Crusades


Middle English History[]

  • 1209 : Oxford University established
  • 1215 : The Magna Carta
  • 1337-1453 : The Hundred Years War
  • 1349-50 : The Black Death kills one third of the British population
  • 1455-87 : The War of the Roses
  • 1534 : Seperation of the Church of England
  • 1585 : Founding first colony at Roanoke
  • 1588 : Destruction of the Spanish Armada

Early Modern English[]

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