|Trondheimsfjord and Munkholmen Island|
|Nickname(s): Nidaros, Trondhjem|
|• Mayor||Rita Ottervik|
|• City||321.81 km2 (124.25 sq mi)|
|• Urban||342.30 km2 (132.16 sq mi)|
|• Metro||7,295 km2 (2,817 sq mi)|
|• Density||560/km2 (1,500/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||37/km2 (95/sq mi)|
|• Municipality/ Urban rank||3rd/4th|
|• Metro rank||4th|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Source: Statistics Norway|
Trondheim (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈtrɔnhɛjm]), historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem, is a city and municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. With a population of 181 513 (October 1, 2013), it is the third most populous municipality in Norway, although the fourth largest urban area. It is also the third largest city in the country, with a population of 170,242 inhabitants within the city borders. The city functions as the administrative centre of Sør-Trøndelag county. Trondheim lies on the south shore of the Trondheimsfjord at the mouth of the river Nidelva. The city is dominated by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), SINTEF, St. Olavs University Hospital and other technology-oriented institutions.
The settlement was founded in 997 as a trading post, and was the capital of Norway during the Viking Age until 1217. From 1152 to 1537, the city was the seat of the Archdiocese of Nidaros; since it has remained the seat of the Diocese of Nidaros and the Nidaros Cathedral. It was incorporated in 1838. The current municipality dates from 1964, when Trondheim merged with Byneset, Leinstrand, Strinda and Tiller.
- For the ecclesiastical history, see Archiepiscopate of Nidaros
Trondheim was named Kaupangen (English: market place or trading place) by Viking King Olav Tryggvason in 997. Fairly soon, it came to be called Nidaros. In the beginning it was frequently used as a military retainer (Old Norse: "hird"-man) of King Olav. It was frequently used as the seat of the king, and was the capital of Norway until 1217.
People have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by the rock carvings in central Norway, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Corded Ware culture. In ancient times, the Kings of Norway were hailed at Øretinget in Trondheim, the place for the assembly of all free men by the mouth of the river Nidelva. Harald Fairhair (865–933) was hailed as the king here, as was his son, Haakon I – called 'the Good'. The battle of Kalvskinnet took place in Trondheim in 1179: King Sverre Sigurdsson and his Birkebeiner warriors were victorious against Erling Skakke (a rival to the throne). Some scholars believe that the famous Lewis chessmen, 12th-century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim.
Trondheim was the seat of the (Catholic) Archdiocese of Nidaros for Norway from 1152. Due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson, had to flee from the city to the Netherlands, where he died in present-day Lier, Belgium.
The city has experienced several major fires. Since it was a city of log buildings, made out of wood, most fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598, 1651, 1681, 1708, twice in 1717, 1742, 1788, 1841 and 1842; these were only the worst cases. The 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings within the city limits. The fire in 1681 (the "Horneman Fire") led to an almost total reconstruction of the city, overseen by General Johan Caspar von Cicignon, originally from Luxembourg. Broad avenues like Munkegaten were created, with no regard for property rights, in order to stop the next fire. At the time, the city had a population of roughly 8000 inhabitants. After the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered after 10 months. The conflict was finally settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660.
During World War II, Trondheim was occupied by Germany from 9 April 1940, the first day of the invasion of Norway, until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945. The home of the most notorious Norwegian Gestapo agent, Henry Rinnan, it was also subject to harsh treatment by the occupying powers, including imposition of martial law in October 1942. During this time the Germans turned the city and its environs into a major base for submarines (DORA 1), and also contemplated a scheme to build a new city for 300,000 inhabitants, Nordstern ("Northern Star"), centred 15 kilometres (9 miles) southwest of Trondheim, near the wetlands of Øysand in the outskirts of Melhus municipality. This new metropolis was to be accompanied by a massively expanded version of the already existing naval base, which was intended to become the primary future stronghold of the German Kriegsmarine. Today there are few physical remains of this enormous construction project.
The city of Trondheim was established on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). On 1 January 1864, part of Strinda (population: 1,229) was transferred to Trondheim. Then on 1 January 1893, another part of Strinda (population: 4,097) was transferred to Trondheim. On 1 January 1952, the Lade area of Strinda (population: 2,230) was transferred to Trondheim. On 1 January 1964, a major municipal merger took place: the neighbouring municipalities of Leinstrand (population: 4,193), Byneset (population: 2,049), Strinda (population: 44,600), and Tiller (population: 3,595) were all merged with the city of Trondheim (population: 56,982), which just about doubled the population of the municipality.
Following the example set by the renaming of the capital Kristiania to Oslo, Nidaros was reintroduced as the official name of the city for a brief period from 1 January 1930 until 6 March 1931. The name was restored in order to reaffirm the city's link with its glorious past, despite the fact that a 1928 referendum on the name of the city had given this result: 17,163 votes in favour of Trondhjem and 1,508 votes in favour of Nidaros. Public outrage later in the same year, even taking the form of riots, forced the Storting to settle for the medieval city name Trondheim. The name of the diocese was, however, changed from Trondhjem stift to Nidaros bispedømme (English: Diocese of Nidaros) in 1918.
Briefly during World War II Trondheim has been named Drontheim, as a German exonym.
Historically, Trondheimen indicates the area around the Trondheimsfjord. The spelling Trondhjem was officially rejected, but many still prefer that spelling of the city's name. Today, most natives still refer to the city as Trånnjæmm.
Coat-of-arms and seal
The coat-of-arms dates back to the 13th century. To the left, there is an archbishop with his staff and mitre in a church archway. On the right, a crowned king holding scales in a castle archway. These two pictures rest on a base which forms an arch. Underneath that arch, are three male heads which symbolize the city's rank as Norway's first capital and the archbishop's place of residence. The scales symbolize justice and the motif is based on the political philosophy of the 13th century, where the balance of power between king and church was an important issue. The three heads at the bottom may symbolize the city council. The motif is unique in Norwegian municipal heraldry, but similar motifs are found in bishopric cities on the continent. The design of the coat-of-arms that was adopted in 1897, and is still used today, was made by Håkon Thorsen.
Trondheim is situated where the river Nidelva meets Trondheimsfjorden with an excellent harbour and sheltered condition. The river used to be deep enough for most boats in the Middle Ages. An avalanche of mud and stones made it less navigable and partly ruined the harbour in the mid-17th century. The municipality's top elevation is the Storheia hill, 565 metres (1,854 ft) above sea level. At summer solstice, the sun rises at 03:00 and sets at 23:40, but stays just below the horizon–there is no darkness (no need for artificial lighting outdoors) from 23 May to 19 July under cloud-free conditions. At winter solstice, the sun rises at 10:00, stays very low above the horizon, and sets at 14:30.
Trondheim city has a predominantly hemiboreal Oceanic climate, but borders on humid continental and subarctic climate. The part of the municipality further away from the fjord has colder winters (January mean at Klett 1961-90 is −5.5 °C (22 °F)). The part close to the fjord, such as the city center, has milder winters (January mean Trondheim city center 58 m amsl based on the years 1961-90 was −2.5 °C (27 °F), but recent years have been warmer. Trondheim is mostly sheltered from the strong south and southwesterly winds which can occur along the outer seaboard. The warmest temperature ever recorded is 35 °C (95 °F) on 22 July 1901, and the coldest is −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) in February 1899. Trondheim experiences moderate snowfall from November to March, but mixed with mild weather and rainfall. Based on the 1961-90 average recorded at the airport, there are 14 days each winter with at least 25 cm (10 in) snow cover on the ground and 22 days with daily minimum temperature −10 °C (14 °F) or colder. There is often more snow and later snowmelt in suburban areas at somewhat higher elevation, such as Byåsen and Heimdal, with good skiing conditions in Bymarka. Spring often sees much sunshine, but nights can be chilly. The daily high temperature can exceed 20 °C (68 °F) from late April to late September, but not reliably so. Temperatures have tended to be warmer in recent years. The Trøndelag area has seen average temperatures increase by almost 2 °C (3.6 °F) in the last 25 years. The weather station at Voll (127 m amsl) in Trondheim started operating in 1923, but was discontinued in 1967 and did not start up again until 1997. The lapse rate is approximately 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) per 100 m (328 ft), so the city center will be about 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) warmer than Voll, while higher altitudes than Voll will be accordingly colder.
|Climate data for Trondheim (Voll 127m amsl) 1997 - 2013|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||84
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||15||13||15||10||11||13||11||10||13||13||12||11||147|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||23||65||119||159||215||197||178||176||112||62||32||9||1,347|
|Source #1: eklima.met.no |
|Source #2: Soltid - Meteorologileksikon |
Several wetland habitats can be found within the city limits. The Gaulosen is one of these. Here you will find a newly built observation tower and information on the birdlife which can be found therein.
Despite Trondheim being Norway's third largest city, wild animals can be seen. Otters and beavers thrive in Nidelva and Bymarka. Badgers and foxes are not uncommon sights. Moose and deer are common in the hills surrounding the city, and might wander into the city, especially in May when the one year olds are chased away by their mothers, or in late winter when food grows scarce in the snow-covered higher regions. Since 2002, a wolverine has stayed in Bymarka.
Most of the downtown area of Trondheim is scattered with small specialty stores and shops, however a considerable part of the downtown shopping area is concentrated around the pedestrianized streets Nordre gate (English: Northern street), Olav Tryggvasons gate and Thomas Angells gate even though the rest of the city center also is riddled with everything from old, well established companies to new, hip and trendy shops.
In the mid- to late 1990s, the area surrounding the old drydock and ship construction buildings of the defunct Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted shipbuilding company at the Nedre Elvehavn were renovated and old industrial buildings were torn down to make way for condominiums. A shopping mall was also built, known as Solsiden (The Sunny Side). This is a popular residential and shopping area, especially for young people.
DORA 1 is a German submarine base that housed the 13th U-boat Flotilla during the World War II occupation of Norway. Today the bunker houses various archives, among them the city archives, the university and state archives. More recently, DORA has been used as a concert venue.
Kristiansten Fortress, built 1681–1684, is located on a hill east in Trondheim. It repelled the invading Swedes in 1718, but was decommissioned in 1816 by Crown Prince Regent Charles John.
A statue of Olav Tryggvason, the founder of Trondheim, is located in the city's central plaza, mounted on top of an obelisk. The statue base is also a sun dial, but it is calibrated to UTC+1 so that the reading is inaccurate by one hour in the summer.
The islet Munkholmen is a popular tourist attraction and recreation site. The islet has served as a place of execution, a monastery, a fortress, prison, and a World War II anti-aircraft gun station.
Stiftsgården is the royal residence in Trondheim, originally constructed in 1774 by Cecilie Christine Schøller. At 140 rooms constituting 4,000 square metres (43,056 sq ft), it is possibly the largest wooden building in Northern Europe, and has been used by royals and their guests since 1800.
A statue of Leif Ericson is located at the seaside, close to the old Customs Building, the cruise ship facilities and the new swimming Hall. The statue is a replica, the original being located at a Seattle marina.
The Nidaros Cathedral and the Archbishop's Palace are located side by side in the middle of the city centre. The cathedral, built from 1070 on, is the most important Gothic monument in Norway and was Northern Europe's most important Christian pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages, with pilgrimage routes leading to it from Oslo in southern Norway and from the Jämtland and Värmland regions of Sweden. Today, it is the northernmost medieval cathedral in the world, and the second largest in Scandinavia.
During the Middle Ages, and again after independence was restored in 1814, the Nidaros Cathedral was the coronation church of the Norwegian kings. King Haakon VII was the last monarch to be crowned there, in 1906. Starting with King Olav V in 1957, coronation was replaced by consecration. In 1991, the present King Harald V and Queen Sonja were consecrated in the cathedral. On 24 May 2002, their daughter Princess Märtha Louise married the writer Ari Behn in the cathedral.
The Pilgrim's Route (Pilegrimsleden) to the site of Saint Olufs's tomb at Nidaros Cathedral, has recently been re-instated. Also known as St. Olav's Way, (Sankt Olavs vei), the main route, which is approximately 640 kilometres (400 mi) long, starts in Oslo and heads North, along the Lake Mjøsa, up the valley Gudbrandsdalen, over the mountain range Dovrefjell and down the Oppdal valley to end at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. There is a Pilgrim's Office in Oslo which gives advice to pilgrims, and a Pilgrim Centre in Trondheim, under the aegis of the cathedral, which awards certificates to successful pilgrims upon the completion of their journey.
The Trondheim Museum of Arts has Norway's third largest public art collection, mainly Norwegian art from the last 150 years. The National Museum of Decorative Arts boasts a large collection of decorative arts and design, including a great number of tapestries from the Norwegian tapestry artist Hannah Ryggen, as well as Norway's only permanent exhibibition of Japanese arts and crafts. Sverresborg, also named Zion after King David's castle in Jerusalem, was a fortification built by Sverre Sigurdsson. It is now an open air museum, consisting of more than 60 buildings. The castle was originally built in 1182–1183, but did not last for long as it was burned down in 1188. However, the Sverresaga indicates it had been restored by 1197.
Trondheim Science Museum (Norwegian: Vitensenteret i Trondheim) is a scientific hands-on experience center. The Museum of Natural History and Archaeology is part of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. There are also a variety of small history, science and natural history museums, such as the Trondheim Maritime Museum, the Armoury, adjacent to the Archbishops's Palace, the music and musical instrument museum Ringve National Museum, Ringve Botanical Garden, the Trondheim Tramway Museum, and the Jewish Museum, co-located with the city's synagogue, which is among the northernmost in the world.
Rockheim (National Center of Pop and Rock Culture) opened at the Pier in August 2010. It is located inside an old building, but characterized by an easily recognizable roof the shape of a box. "The box" is decorated by thousands of tiny lights that changes in a variety of coulours and patterns, and is a landmark in the cityscape - especially in dark winter evenings.
The Church of Norway has 21 churches within the municipality of Trondheim. They are all a part of the Diocese of Nidaros, which is based in Trondheim at the Nidaros Cathedral. Many of the churches are several hundred years old, with a couple which were built almost 1000 years ago.
|Church Name||Year Built||Location|
of the Church
|Nidaros||Nidaros Domkirke og Vår Frue||Nidaros Cathedral||1070–1300||Midtbyen|
|Vår Frue Church||1200||Midtbyen|
On 1 January 2005, the city was reorganized from five boroughs into four, with each of these having separate social services offices. The current boroughs are Midtbyen (44,967 inhabitants), Østbyen (42,707 inhabitants), Lerkendal (46,603 inhabitants) and Heimdal (30,744) inhabitants. The Population statistics listed are as of 1 January 2008.
Prior to 2005, Trondheim was divided into the boroughs Sentrum, Strinda, Nardo, Byåsen and Heimdal. Template:Valgbox
Education and research
- See also the list of primary schools in Trondheim.
There are 11 high schools in the city. Trondheim katedralskole ("Trondheim Cathedral School") was founded in 1152 and is the oldest gymnasium-level school of Norway, while Brundalen videregående skole is the largest in Sør-Trøndelag with its 1100 students and 275 employees.
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the Sør-Trøndelag University College (HiST) are also situated here. Established as part of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Ugelstad Laboratory was opened in 2002.
One regional hospital, the St. Olavs University Hospital, is located in Trondheim. The university hospital, cooperates closely with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). A new hospital is currently being built, with a projected cost of 12 billion NOK.
SINTEF, the largest independent research organisation in Scandinavia, has 1800 employees with 1300 of these located in Trondheim. The Air Force Academy of the Royal Norwegian Air Force is located at Kuhaugen in Trondheim.
The Geological Survey of Norway is located at Lade in Trondheim and is a major geoscientific institution with 220 employees of which 70% are scientists
Adresseavisen is the largest regional newspaper and the oldest active newspaper in Norway, having been established in 1767. The newspaper owns the regional television channel TVAdressa and the radio channel RadioAdressa. The two Headquarters of The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) are located at Tyholt in Trondheim and Oslo. The student press of Trondheim features three types of media. Under Dusken is the student paper, Radio Revolt is the student radio, and Student-TV broadcasts videos online.
Trondheim has an international airport, Trondheim Airport, Værnes, situated in Stjørdal, which is Norway's fourth largest airport in terms of passenger traffic. Værnes has non-stop connections to cities such as London, Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Berlin.
Major railway connections are the northbound Nordland Line, the eastbound Meråker Line to Åre and Östersund in Sweden, and two southbound connections to Oslo, the Røros Line and Dovre Line.
The Coastal Express ships (Hurtigruten: Covering the Bergen–Kirkenes stretch of the coast) call at Trondheim, as do many cruise ships during the summer season. Since 1994 there is also a fast commuter boat service to Kristiansund, the closest coastal city to the southwest.
Trondheim also boasts the northernmost (since closure of Arkhangelsk tram in 2004) tramway line in the world: the Gråkallen Line, the last remaining segment of the Trondheim Tramway, is an 8.8 kilometres (5.5 mi) route (which is mostly single-track outside the innermost parts of the city; except the stretch between Breidablikk and Nordre Hoem stations) which runs from the city centre, through the Byåsen district, and up to Lian, in the large recreation area Bymarka. Trondheim boasts the world's only bicycle lift, Trampe.
The bus network, operated by AtB, runs throughout most of the city and its suburbs. In addition, the Nattbuss (Night Bus) service ensures cheap and effective transport for those enjoying nightlife in the city centre during the weekends. The Nattbus has other prices than ordinary buses. The European route E6 highway passes through the city centre of Trondheim in addition to a motorway bypass along the eastern rim of the city.
The main regional theatre, Trøndelag Teater, is situated in Trondheim. The theatre is the oldest theatre in Scandinavia; still in use from 1816. The city also features an alternative theatre house, called Avant Garden.
Trondheim has a broad music scene, and is known for its strong communities committed to rock, jazz and classical music, the latter two spearheaded by the music conservatory at NTNU and the municipal music school, Trondheim Kommunale Musikk- og Kulturskole, with the Trondheim Symphony Orchestra and the Trondheim Soloists being the best-known arenas. Classical artists hailing from Trondheim include violinist Arve Tellefsen, Elise Båtnes and Marianne Thorsen. Also the Nidaros Cathedral Boys' Choir.
Pop/rock artists and bands associated with Trondheim include Åge Aleksandersen, Margaret Berger, DumDum Boys, Lasse Marhaug, Gåte, Keep Of Kalessin, Lumsk, Motorpsycho, Kari Rueslåtten, The 3rd and the Mortal, TNT, Tre Små Kinesere, The Kids, Casino Steel (of The Boys), Atrox, Bloodthorn, Manes, child prodigy Malin Reitan and Aleksander With. The most popular punk scene is UFFA.
Georg Kajanus, creator of the bands Eclection, Sailor and DATA, was born in Trondheim. The music production team Stargate started out in Trondheim.
Trondheim features a lively film scene, including three filmfests: Minimalen Short Film Fest and Kosmorama International Film Fest in March, and Trondheim Documentarfestival in November.
Sports and recreation
Granåsen, a Nordic skiing venue located in Byåsen, regularly hosts World Cup competitions in ski jumping, biathlon and cross-country skiing, as well as the 1997 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. Trondheim attempted but failed to become the Norwegian candidate for the 2018 Winter Olympics. Hiking and recreational skiing is available around the city, particularly in Bymarka, which can be reached by the tramway. Trondheim Golfklubb has a nine-hole golf course in Byåsen. The World Allround Speed Skating Championships were hosted at Øya Stadion in 1907, 1911, 1926, 1933 and 1937.
Rosenborg BK is the city's premier football club and plays their home matches at Lerkendal Stadion. They have won the Norwegian Premier League twenty two times between 1967 and 2010, and had until 2007 played eleven times in the UEFA Champions League. Byåsen IL plays in the Women's handball league, and is a regular in EHF Women's Champions League, playing their home games at Trondheim Spektrum. Rosenborg IHK plays in the premier ice hockey league, with their home games played at Leangen Ishall.
With students comprising almost a fifth of the population, the city of Trondheim is heavily influenced by student culture. Most noticeable is Studentersamfundet i Trondhjem, the city's student society. Its characteristic round, red building from 1929 sits at the head of the bridge crossing the river southwards from the city centre. As the second largest university in Norway, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) is the host of some 24,000 students. Sør-Trøndelag University College has 6,000 students.
Student culture in Trondheim is characterized by a long-standing tradition of volunteer work. The student society is for example run by more than 1,200 volunteers. NTNUI, Norway's largest sports club, is among the other volunteer organizations that dominate student culture in Trondheim. Students in Trondheim are also behind two major Norwegian culture festivals, UKA and The International Student Festival in Trondheim (ISFiT). NTNU lists over 200 student organizations with registered web pages on its servers alone.
In popular culture
Trondheim culture is parodied on the Monty Python album Another Monty Python Record in the form of the fictitious Trondheim Hammer Dance.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Trondheim is twinned with:
- List of mayors of Trondheim
- Tyholt Tower
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- ^ "Tabell 2 Folkemengde og areal i tettsteder. Kommune. 1. januar 2012". Ssb.no. http://www.ssb.no/beftett/tab-2012-09-06-02.html. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ^ Hitlers drøm om Trondheim (Norwegian)
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- ^ Bratberg, Terje T. V. (10 January 2008). "Striden om bynavnet". Arbeideravisa (Trondheim): p. 27. (Norwegian)
- ^ "Trondheim's coat of arms and seal". Trondheim kommune. http://www.trondheim.no/content.ap?thisId=519505. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
- ^ "Trondheim, Norway – Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times for the whole year – Gaisma". Gaisma.com. http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/trondheim.html. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ^ "World Weather Information Service – Trondheim". Worldweather.org. 5 October 2006. http://www.worldweather.org/008/c00907.htm. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ^ Trøndelag area climate history
- ^ "See Norway's snow, weather, water and climate anytime anywhere". http://senorge.no/mapPage.aspx. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
- ^ "Nyhet fra Meteorologisk institutt" (in Norwegian). met.no. 27 November 2007. http://met.no/aktuelt/nyhetsarkiv/2007/11november/speilsalen.html.
- ^ "eKlima - Climate statistics for Norway from Meteorologisk Institutt (Norwegian Meteorological Institute)". January 2014. http://sharki.oslo.dnmi.no/portal/page?_pageid=73,39035,73_39049&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL.
- ^ "Sunhours in Norway". December 2013. http://metlex.met.no/wiki/Soltid.
- ^ "Bymarkbeveren skal holdes i sjakk". http://www.adressa.no/nyheter/trondheim/article347991.ece. Retrieved 3 August 2007. (Norwegian)
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- ^ "Pilgrim ways in Norway, background". Trondheim kommune. http://www.trondheim.com/content.ap?thisId=5510350. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
- ^ "The consecration of King Harald and Queen Sonja". The Norwegian Royal Family. http://www.kongehuset.no/c27283/artikkel/vis.html?tid=28740. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- ^ "The wedding of Princess Märtha Louise". The Norwegian Royal Family. http://www.kongehuset.no/c28617/artikkel/vis.html?tid=28747. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- ^ "Pilegrimsleden (Miljøstatus i Norge)" (in Norwegian). http://www.miljostatus.no/Tema/Kulturminner/Kulturmiljoer/Pilegrimsleden/.
- ^ Raju, Alison (2010). The Pilgrim Road to Nidaros: St Olav's Way - Oslo to Trondheim. Cicerone Press Limited. ISBN 978-1-85284-314-4.
- ^ 
- ^ http://www.nkim.museum.no/
- ^ "The Hospital Development Project for Central Norway". Helsebygg.com. http://www.helsebygg.com/. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ^ "About us – SINTEF". Sintef.no. 18 June 2013. http://www.sintef.no/content/page1____328.aspx. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ^ Haugan, Trond E (2008). Byens magiske rom: Historien om Trondheim kino. Tapir Akademisk Forlag. ISBN 978-82-519-2242-5.
- ^ "About Studentersamfundet" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071109182411/http://www.samfundet.no/informasjon/omsamfundet.php. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- ^ "NTNU Student Organizations (in Norwegian". http://org.ntnu.no/. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- ^ "Apologies/ Trondheim Hammer Dance". http://www.madmusic.com/song_details.aspx?SongID=27618.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer" (in (Norwegian)). Trondheim.com. http://www.trondheim.com/content.ap?thisId=93081934. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- ^ "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales" (in German). Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen. http://www.darmstadt.de/standort/staedtepartnerschaften-und-internationales/index.htm. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- ^ "Twin Towns – Graz Online – English Version". www.graz.at. http://www.graz.at/cms/beitrag/10045157/606819/. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- ^ "Gradovi prijatelji Splita [Split Twin Towns]" (in Croatian). Grad Split [Split Official City Website]. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. http://web.archive.org/web/20120324035937/http://www.split.hr/Default.aspx?sec=526. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- ^ ( part of de facto independent Transnistria)
- ^ "Vallejo Sister City". Vallejo Sister City Association. http://www.vallejosistercity.org/about-us.html. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway
- Municipality website (Norwegian)
- Trondheim.no, Trondheim's official website in Norwegian and English
- Visit MY Trondheim
- Trondheim travel guide from Wikivoyage