This article is about the American politician; for the American rock climber, see Warren J. Harding.
Warren Gamaliel Harding

In office
March 4 1921 – August 2 1923
Vice President Calvin Coolidge
Preceded by Woodrow Wilson
Succeeded by Calvin Coolidge

In office
January 4 1915 – March 4 1921
Preceded by Theodore E. Burton
Succeeded by Frank B. Willis

28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio
In office
January 11 1904 – January 8 1906
Governor Myron T. Herrick
Preceded by Harry L. Gordon
Succeeded by Andrew L. Harris

Born November 2, 1865(1865-11-02)
Near Blooming Groove, Ohio
Died August 2, 1923 (age 57)
San Francisco, California
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Florence Kling Harding
Alma mater Ohio Central College
Occupation Businessman (Newspapers)
Religion Baptist

Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2 1865August 2 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential newspaper publisher with a commanding presence and a flair for public speaking. He served in the Ohio Senate (1899–1903) and later as lieutenant governor of Ohio (1903–1905) and as a U.S. Senator (1915–1921). His political leanings were conservative, which enabled him to become the compromise choice at the 1920 Republican National Convention. In the 1920 election, he coined the phrase "return to normalcy" and defeated his Democratic opponent, James M. Cox, in a landslide, 60.36 % to 34.19%. As president, he appointed a strong cabinet, led by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon and Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover. However some other appointments proved to be corrupt. In foreign affairs, Harding signed peace treaties which formally ended World War I, and led the way to world naval disarmament at the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–22. Harding died in San Francisco, 29 months into his term, at age 57 from a heart attack.

Harding is often ranked as one of the least successful presidents of the United States, despite his immense popularity while in office. Indeed, Harding himself is quoted as saying "I am not fit for this office and never should have been here."[1]

Early life[]

Harding was born on November 2, 1865, near Corsica, Ohio (now Blooming Grove). Harding was the eldest of the eight children of Dr. George Tryon Harding, Sr. and Phoebe Elizabeth (Dickerson) Harding. His birth name was Warren Gamaliel Bancroft Winnipeg Harding. His mother was a midwife, who later obtained her medical license, and his father taught, for a time, at a rural school north of Mount Gilead. While he was a teenager, the Harding family moved to Caledonia in neighboring Marion County when Harding's father acquired The Argus, a local weekly newspaper. It was here that Harding learned the basics of the business. His education was completed at Ohio Central College in Iberia. While a college student, he learned more about the printing and newspaper trade, while working at the Union Register in Mount Gilead.

After graduating, Harding moved to Marion, where he raised $300 with two friends to purchase the failing Marion Daily Star. It was the weakest of Marion's three newspapers and the only daily in the growing city. Harding converted the paper's editorial platform to support the Republicans and enjoyed a moderate degree of success. However, his political stance was at odds with those who controlled most of Marion's local politics. When Harding moved to unseat the Marion Independent as the official paper of daily record, his actions brought the wrath of Amos Hall Kling, one of Marion's wealthiest real estate speculators, down upon him.

Warren and Florence Harding pose in their garden.

While Harding won the war of words and made the Marion Daily Star one of the biggest newspapers in the county, the battle took a toll on his health. In 1889, when Harding was 24, he suffered from exhaustion and nervous fatigue. He traveled to Battle Creek, to spend several weeks in a sanatorium to regain his strength. He later returned to Marion to continue operating the paper. He spent his days boosting the community on the editorial pages, and his evenings "bloviating" (Harding's term for informal conversation) with his friends over games of poker.

On July 8, 1891, Harding married Florence Kling, who was five years Harding's senior, a divorcée, and the mother of a young son, Marshall Eugene DeWolfe. She had pursued him persistently, until he reluctantly surrendered and proposed. Florence's father, Amos Hall Kling, was Harding's nemesis. Upon hearing that his only daughter intended to marry Harding, Kling disowned her and even forbade his wife to attend her wedding. He opposed the marriage vigorously and would not speak to his daughter or son-in-law for eight years.

The couple complemented one another with Harding's affable personality balancing his wife's no-nonsense approach to life. Florence Harding inherited her father's determination and business sense and turned the Marion Daily Star into a profitable business. She has been credited with helping Harding to achieve greater things than he might have done alone, leading to speculation that she later pushed him all the way to the White House.

Harding was a Freemason, raised to the Sublime Degree of a Master Mason on August 27 1920, in Marion Lodge #70, F.& A.M., in Marion, Ohio.

Political career[]

As an influential newspaper publisher with a flair for public speaking, Harding was elected to the Ohio State Senate in 1899. He served four years before being elected Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, a post he occupied from 1903 to 1905. His leanings were conservative, and his record in both offices was relatively undistinguished. He received the Republican nomination for Governor of Ohio in 1910, but lost to incumbent Judson Harmon.

U.S. Senator[]

In 1912, Harding gave the nominating speech for incumbent President William Howard Taft at the Republican National Convention [1] and in 1914 he was elected to the United States Senate. He served in the Senate from 1915 until his inauguration as president on March 4, 1921, becoming the first sitting Senator to be elected President of the United States.

In his book, Blink, Malcolm Gladwell has suggested that Harding's political success was based on his appearance, essentially that he "looked like a president". Gladwell argues that the first impression of Harding outweighed his intellectual and other deficiencies, and refers to the combination as the 'Warren Harding Error' in how people make decisions.

Election of 1920[]

Relatively unknown outside his own state, Harding was a true "dark horse" candidate, winning the Republican Party nomination due to the political machinations of his friends after the nominating convention had become deadlocked. Republican leaders met in a smoke-filled room at the Blackstone Hotel in Chicago to end the deadlock. Before receiving the nomination, he was asked whether there were any embarrassing episodes in his past that might be used against him. His formal education was limited, he had a longstanding affair with the wife of an old friend, and he was a social drinker. Harding answered "No" and the Party moved to nominate him, only to discover later his relationship with Carrie Fulton Phillips.

In the 1920 election, Harding ran against Democratic Ohio Governor James M. Cox, whose running-mate was Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. The election was seen in part as a referendum on whether to continue with the "progressive" work of the Woodrow Wilson administration or to revert to the "laissez-faire" approach of the William McKinley era.

Harding ran on a promise to "Return to Normalcy", a seldom used term he popularized, (the word's creation is often credited to Harding in error. It was in English language dictionaries as early as 1857. The more common word in conventional English at the time was "Normality"). The slogan called an end to the abnormal era of the Great War, along with a call to reflect three trends of his time: a renewed isolationism in reaction to the War, a resurgence of nativism, and a turning away from the government activism of the reform era.

Harding's "front porch campaign" during the late summer and fall of 1920 captured the imagination of the country. Not only was it the first campaign to be heavily covered by the press and to receive widespread newsreel coverage, but it was also the first modern campaign to use the power of Hollywood and Broadway stars, who traveled to Marion for photo opportunities with Harding and his wife. Al Jolson, Lillian Russell, Douglas Fairbanks, and Mary Pickford were among the conservative-minded luminaries to make the pilgrimage to central Ohio. Business icons Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone also lent their cachet to the campaign. From the onset of the campaign until the November election, over 600,000 people traveled to Marion to participate.

The campaign owed a great deal to Florence Harding, who played perhaps a more active role than any previous candidate's wife in a presidential race. She cultivated the relationship between the campaign and the press. As the business manager of the Star, she understood reporters and their industry and played to their needs by making herself freely available to answer questions, pose for pictures, or deliver food prepared in her kitchen to the press office, which was a bungalow she had constructed at the rear of their property in Marion. Mrs. Harding even went so far as to coach her husband on the proper way to wave to newsreel cameras to make the most of coverage.

The campaign also drew upon Harding's popularity with women. Considered handsome, Harding photographed well compared to Cox. However, it was Harding's support for women's suffrage in the Senate that made him extremely popular with women: the ratification of the 19th Amendment in August 1920 brought huge crowds of women to Marion to hear Harding.

During the campaign, rumors spread that Harding's great-great-grandfather was a West Indian black and that other blacks might be found in his family tree. In response, Harding's campaign manager said, "No family in the state (of Ohio) has a clearer, a more honorable record than the Hardings, a blue-eyed stock from New England and Pennsylvania, the finest pioneer blood." The rumors, perhaps based on no more than local gossip, were circulated by William Estabrook Chancellor. Rumors may have been sustained by an alleged response of Harding to a friendly reporter, perhaps meant merely to be dismissive: "How do I know, Jim? One of my ancestors may have jumped the fence." (Wallechinsky and Wallace, The People's Almanac)

The election of 1920 was the first in which women could vote nationwide. Harding received 60% of the national vote and 404 electoral votes, an unprecedented margin of victory. Cox received 34% of the national vote and 127 electoral votes. Socialist Eugene V. Debs, campaigning from a federal prison, received 3% of the national vote. Debs was in prison for opposing Wilson's draft; despite the many political differences between the two candidates, when Harding became President, he pardoned Debs. [2]

Presidency 1921–1923[]

Inauguration of Warren G. Harding, March 4, 1921.

The administration of Warren G. Harding followed the Republican platform approved at the 1920 Republican National Convention, which was held in Chicago.

Harding pushed for the establishment of the Bureau of Veterans Affairs (later organized as the Department of Veterans Affairs), the first permanent attempt at answering the needs of those who had served the nation in time of War.

President Harding with Chief Justice William Howard Taft and former Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln.

In April 1921, speaking before a joint session of congress he called for peacemaking with Germany and Austria, emergency tariffs, new immigration laws, regulation of radio and trans cable communications retrenchment in government, tax reduction, repeal of wartime excess profits tax, reduction of railroad rates, promotion of agricultural interests, a national budget system, a great merchant marine and a department of public welfare. He also called for the abolition of lynching. But he did not want to make enemies in his own party and with the Democrats and did not fight for his program.[3]

Harding addresses the House of Representatives, Coolidge and Gillett seated behind.

The Hardings visited their home community of Marion, Ohio once during the term when the city celebrated its Centennial during the first week of July. The President arrived on July 3, gave a speech to the community at the Marion County Fairgrounds on July 4, and left the following morning for other speaking commitments.

Major events during presidency[]

Administration and cabinet[]

Portrait of President Harding.

The Harding Cabinet
President Warren G. Harding 1921–1923
Vice President Calvin Coolidge 1921–1923
Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes 1921–1923
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon 1921–1923
Secretary of War John W. Weeks 1921–1923
Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty 1921–1923
Postmaster General Will H. Hays 1921–1922
  Hubert Work 1922–1923
  Harry S. New 1923
Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby 1921–1923
Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall 1921–1923
  Hubert Work 1923
Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace 1921–1923
Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover 1921–1923
Secretary of Labor James J. Davis 1921–1923

Supreme Court appointments[]

The Taft Court, 1925

Harding appointed the following justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Administrative scandals[]

Upon winning the election, Harding appointed many of his old allies to prominent political positions. Known as the "Ohio Gang" (a term used by Charles Mee, Jr., in his book of the same name), some of the appointees used their new powers to rob the government. It is unclear how much, if anything, Harding himself knew about his friends' illicit activities.

The most infamous scandal of the time was the Teapot Dome affair, which shook the nation for years after Harding's death. The scandal involved Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, who was convicted of accepting bribes and illegal no-interest personal loans in exchange for the leasing of public oil fields to business associates. (Absent the bribes and personal loans, the leases themselves were quite legal.) In 1931, Fall became the first member of a presidential Cabinet to be sent to prison.

Thomas Miller, head of the Office of Alien Property, was convicted of accepting bribes. Jess Smith, personal aide to the Attorney General, destroyed papers and then committed suicide. Charles Forbes, director of the Veterans Bureau, skimmed profits, earned large amounts of kickbacks, and directed underground alcohol and drug distribution. He was convicted of fraud and bribery and drew a two-year sentence. Charles Cramer, an aide to Charles Forbes, also committed suicide.

No evidence to date suggests that Harding personally profited from these crimes, but he was apparently unable to stop them. "My God, this is a hell of a job!" Harding said. "I have no trouble with my enemies, but my damn friends, my God-damned friends... they're the ones that keep me walking the floor nights!"


President Harding's casket passes by the front of the White House.

The Harding Memorial in Marion is considered by many historians to be the most beautiful of Presidential Tombs in the United States.

In June 1923, Harding set out on a cross-country "Voyage of Understanding," planning to meet ordinary people and explain his policies. During this trip, he became the first president to visit Alaska.[4] Rumors of corruption in his administration were beginning to circulate in Washington by this time, and Harding was profoundly shocked by a long message he received while in Alaska, apparently detailing illegal activities previously unknown to him. At the end of July, while traveling south from Alaska through British Columbia, he developed what was thought to be a severe case of food poisoning. He gave the final speech of his life to a large crowd at the University of Washington Stadium (now Husky Stadium) at the University of Washington campus in Seattle. He then took the train south. Arriving at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, he developed pneumonia. Harding died of either a heart attack or a stroke at 7:35 p.m. on August 2 1923. The formal announcement, printed in the New York Times of that day, stated that "A stroke of apoplexy was the cause of death." He had been ill exactly one week. [5]

Naval physicians surmised that he had suffered a heart attack; however, this diagnosis was not made by Dr. Charles E. Sawyer, the Surgeon General, who was traveling with the presidential party. Mrs. Harding refused permission for an autopsy, which soon led to speculation that the President had been the victim of a plot, possibly carried out by his wife. Gaston B. Means, an amateur historian and gadfly, noted in his book The Strange Death of President Harding (1930) that the circumstances surrounding his death lent themselves to some suspecting he had been poisoned. Several individuals attached to him, personally, and politically, would have welcomed Harding's death, as they would have been disgraced in association by Means' assertion of Harding's "imminent impeachment". Although Means was later discredited for publically accusing Mrs. Harding of the murder, enough doubts surround the President's death to keep reputable scholars open to the possibility of murder.

Harding was succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, who was sworn in by his father, a justice of the peace, in Plymouth Notch, Vermont.

Following his death, Harding's body was returned to Washington, where it was placed in the East Room of the White House pending a state funeral at the United States Capitol. White House employees at the time were quoted as saying that the night before the funeral, they heard Mrs. Harding speak for more than an hour to her dead husband.

Harding was entombed in the receiving vault of the Marion Cemetery, Marion, Ohio, in August 1923. Following Mrs. Harding's death on November 21, 1924, she too was temporarily buried next to her husband. Both bodies were moved in December 1927 to the newly completed Harding Memorial in Marion, which was dedicated by President Herbert Hoover in 1931. The lapse between the final interment and the dedication was partly because of the aftermath of the Teapot Dome scandal.

At the time of his death, Harding was also survived by his father. Harding and John F. Kennedy are the only two presidents to have predeceased their fathers.

Personal scandals and allegations[]

Extramarital affairs[]

The extent to which Harding engaged in extra-marital affairs is somewhat controversial. It has been recorded in primary documents that during his lifetime, Harding had an affair with Carrie Fulton Phillips; Nan Britton wrote The President's Daughter in 1927, documenting her affair and the alleged child (Elizabeth Ann) with Harding.

Rumors of the Harding love letters circulated through Marion, Ohio, for many years. However, their existence was not confirmed until 1968, when author Francis Russell gained access to them during his research for his book, The Shadow of Blooming Grove. The letters were in the possession of Phillips. Phillips kept the letters in a box in a closet and was reluctant to share them. Russell persuaded her to relent, and the letters showed conclusively that Harding had a 15-year relationship with Mrs. Phillips, who was then the wife of his friend James Phillips, owner of the local department store, the Uhler-Phillips Company. Mrs. Phillips was almost eight years younger than Harding. By 1915, she began pressing Harding to leave his wife. When he refused, she left her husband and moved to Berlin with her daughter Isabel. However, as the United States became increasingly likely to be drawn into World War I, Mrs. Phillips moved back to the U.S. and the affair reignited. Harding was now a U.S. senator, and a vote was coming up on a declaration of war against Germany.

Mrs. Phillips threatened to go public with their affair if the Senator supported the war, but Harding defied her and voted for war, and Phillips did not reveal the scandal to the world. When Harding won the Republican presidential nomination in 1920, he did not disclose the relationship to party officials. Once they learned of the affair, it was too late to find another nominee. To reduce the likelihood of a scandal breaking, the Republican National Committee sent Phillips and her family on a trip to Japan and paid them over $50,000. She also received monthly payments thereafter, becoming the first and only person known to have successfully extorted money from a major political party.

The letters Harding wrote to Mrs. Phillips were confiscated at the request of the Harding heirs, who requested and received a court injunction prohibiting their inclusion in Russell's book. Russell in turn left quoted passages from the letters as blank passages in protest against the Harding heirs' actions. The Harding-Phillips love letters remain under an Ohio court protective order that expires in 2023, 100 years after Harding's death, after which the content of the letters may be published or reviewed.

Warren Gamaliel Harding.

Besides Mrs. Phillips, Harding also reportedly had an affair with Nan Britton, the daughter of Harding's friend Dr. Britton of Marion. Britton's claim that he had fathered her child was widely circulated in the years just after Harding's death, and it is often cited as one of the best-known "facts" about Harding, but it has not been proved to the satisfaction of most historians.

Nan Britton's obsession with Harding started at an early age when she began pasting pictures of Senator Harding on her bedroom walls. According to Britton's book The President's Daughter, she and Senator Harding conceived a daughter, Elizabeth Ann, in January of 1919, in his Senate office. Elizabeth Ann was born on October 22 1919. Harding never met Elizabeth Ann but paid large amounts of child support. Harding and Britton, according to unsubstantiated reports, continued their affair while he was President, using a closet adjacent to the Oval Office for privacy. Following Harding's death, Britton unsuccessfully sued the estate of Warren G. Harding on behalf of Elizabeth Ann. Under cross-examination by Harding heirs' attorney, Grant Mouser (a former member of Congress himself), Britton's testimony was riddled with inconsistencies, and she lost her case. Britton married a Mr. Christian, who adopted Elizabeth Ann. In adulthood, Elizabeth Ann married Henry Blaesing and raised a family. During most of her life she shied from press coverage about her alleged birthright, and refused requests for interviews in her later years. She died on November 17, 2005, in Oregon.

Speaking style[]

Although a commanding and powerful speaker, Harding was notorious for his verbal gaffes, such as his comment "I would like the government to do all it can to mitigate, then, in understanding, in mutuality of interest, in concern for the common good, our tasks will be solved."[6] His errors were compounded by his insistence on writing his own speeches. Although it might not have been a mispronunciation as some thought, Harding's most famous "mistake" was his use of the word "normalcy" when the more correct word to use at the time would have been "normality." Harding decided he liked the sound of the word and made "Return to Normalcy" a recurring theme. Critic H.L. Mencken disagreed, saying of Harding, "He writes the worst English that I have ever encountered. It reminds me of a string of wet sponges; it reminds me of tattered washing on the line; it reminds me of stale bean soup, of college yells, of dogs barking idiotically through endless nights. It is so bad that a sort of grandeur creeps into it. It drags itself out of the dark abysm of pish, and crawls insanely up the topmost pinnacle of posh. It is rumble and bumble. It is flap and doodle. It is balder and dash." Mencken also coined the term "Gamalielese" to refer to Harding's distinctive style of speech. Upon Harding's death, poet [[Wikipedia:E. E. Cummings|]] said "The only man, woman or child who wrote a simple declarative sentence with seven grammatical errors is dead."[6]

Some suggest Harding had a form of aphasia.[7]


A statue honoring Harding on a speech he delivered on relations between the United States and Canada in Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.


  • Anthony, Carl S. Florence Harding: The First Lady, the Jazz Age, and the Death of America's Most Scandalous President. (1998)
  • Downes Randolph C. The Rise of Warren Gamaliel Hardin, 1865–1920. Ohio University Press, 1970
  • Fine, Gary Alan. "Reputational Entrepreneurs and the Memory of Incompetence: Melting Supporters, Partisan Warriors, and Images of President Harding." American Journal of Sociology 1996 101(5): 1159-1193. Issn: 0002-9602 Fulltext: in Jstor and Ebsco
  • Grant, Philip A., Jr. "President Warren G. Harding and the British War Debt Question, 1921-1923." Presidential Studies Quarterly 1995 25(3): 479-487. Issn: 0360-4918
  • Kenneth J. Grieb; The Latin American Policy of Warren G. Harding 1976 online
  • Malin, James C. The United States after the World War 1930. online detailed analysis of foreign and economic policies
  • Morello, John A. Selling the President, 1920: Albert D. Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. Harding. Praeger, 2001.
  • Murray Robert K. The Harding Era 1921-1923: Warren G. Harding and his Administration. University of Minnesota Press, 1969, the standard academic study
  • Payne, Phillip. "Instant History and the Legacy of Scandal: the Tangled Memory of Warren G. Harding, Richard Nixon, and William Jefferson Clinton." Prospects 2003 28: 597-625. Issn: 0361-2333
  • Russell, Francis. The Shadow of Blooming Grove , 1968. biography


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  1. ^ "{{subst:#ifexist:The Writer's Almanac|[[The Writer's Almanac|]|[[Wikipedia:The Writer's Almanac|]]}} with {{subst:#ifexist:Garrison Keillor|[[Garrison Keillor|]]|[[Wikipedia:Garrison Keillor|]]}}"]. {{subst:#ifexist:American Public Media|[[American Public Media|]]|[[Wikipedia:American Public Media|]]}}. {{subst:#ifexist:2000-11-02|[[2000-11-02|]]|[[Wikipedia:2000-11-02|]]}}. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  2. ^ "Eugene V. Debs". {{subst:#ifexist:Time (magazine)|[[Time (magazine)|]]|[[Wikipedia:Time (magazine)|]]}}. Monday, November 1, 1926.,9171,722648,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21. "He was Eugene Victor Debs, labor leader. He was in jail for the violation of an injunction. Back of this event was the story of an Indiana grocery clerk, a locomotive fireman, who became the organizer of the American Railway Union, who twice made the nation feel the fist of unionized labor. The second time was the great strike against the Pullman Co. in 1894 when President Cleveland had to despatch troops to Chicago to quell the riotous bloodshed. Eugene Debs and three others, indicted for conspiracy against the Government, were successfully defended by Clarence S. Darrow." 
  3. ^ Murray (1969)
  4. ^ President Harding's 1923 Visit to Utah by W. Paul Reeve History Blazer July 1995
  5. ^ "Harding a Farm Boy Who Rose by Work". {{subst:#ifexist:New York Times|[[New York Times|]]|[[Wikipedia:New York Times|]]}}. Retrieved 2007-07-21. "Nominated for the Presidency as a compromise candidate and elected by a tremendous majority because of a reaction against the policies of his predecessor, Warren Gamaliel Harding, twenty-ninth President of the United States, owed his political elevation largely to his engaging personal traits, his ability to work in harmony with the leaders of his party and the fact that he typified in himself the average prosperous American citizen." 
  6. ^ a b Stephen Pile, {{subst:#ifexist:The Book of Heroic Failures|[[The Book of Heroic Failures|]]|[[Wikipedia:The Book of Heroic Failures|]]}} (Futura, 1980) p.180.
  7. ^ President Warren Harding: Health and Medical History

Political offices
Preceded by
Harry L. Gordon
Lieutenant Governor of Ohio
1904 – 1906
Succeeded by
Francis W. Treadway
Preceded by
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
Succeeded by
Calvin Coolidge
United States Senate
Preceded by
Theodore E. Burton
Senator from Ohio (Class 3)
1915 – 1921
Served alongside: Atlee Pomerene
Succeeded by
Frank B. Willis
Party political offices
Preceded by
Charles Evans Hughes
Republican Party presidential candidate
Succeeded by
Calvin Coolidge
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Unknown Soldier of World War I
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

August 8, 1923
Succeeded by
William Howard Taft

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