|— City —|
|Nickname(s): The White Rose City|
|- Borough||September 24, 1787|
|- City||January 11, 1887|
|• Mayor||Kim Bracey (D)|
|• City||5.26 sq mi (13.62 km2)|
|• Land||5.20 sq mi (13.48 km2)|
|• Water||0.06 sq mi (0.14 km2)|
|• Density||8,311.41/sq mi (3,031.75/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
York (Deitsch: Yarrick), known as the White Rose City (after the symbol of the House of York), is a city located in York County, Pennsylvania, United States, which is in the South Central region of the state. The population within the city limits was 43,718 at the 2010 census, which was a 7.0% increase from the 2000 count of 40,862. When combined with the adjacent boroughs of West York and North York and surrounding Spring Garden, West Manchester, and Springettsbury townships, the population of Greater York is 108,386. York is the county seat of York County, and is located at . York is currently the 14th largest city in Pennsylvania.
- 1 18th century
- 2 19th century
- 3 20th century
- 4 21st century
- 5 Major Roads
- 6 Historic architecture
- 7 Local corporations and industry
- 8 Geography and climate
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Culture
- 11 Education
- 12 Fire Department
- 13 Sports
- 14 Media
- 15 Sister cities
- 16 Transportation
- 17 Notable people
- 18 References
- 19 External links
York, also known as Yorktown in the mid 18th to early 19th century, was founded in 1741 by settlers from the Philadelphia region, and named for the English city of the same name. By 1777, most of the area residents were of either German or Scots-Irish descent. York was incorporated as a borough on September 24, 1787, and as a city on January 11, 1887. During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), York served as the temporary capital of the Continental Congress. The Articles of Confederation were drafted and adopted in York, though they would not be ratified until March 1781.
York styles itself the first Capital of the United States, although historians generally consider it to be the fourth capital, after Philadelphia, Baltimore and Lancaster. The claim arises from the assertion that the Articles of Confederation was the first legal document to refer to the colonies as "the United States of America". The argument depends on whether the Declaration of Independence, which also uses the term, would be considered a true legal document of the United States, being drafted under and in opposition to British rule. This does not, however, prevent modern businesses and organizations in the York area, such as the First Capital Dispensing Co., First Capital Engineering and First Capital Federal Credit Union from using the name.
According to U.S. census reports from 1800 through 1840, York ranked within the nation's top 100 most populous urban areas.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), York became the largest Northern town to be occupied by the Confederate army when the division of Major General Jubal Anderson Early spent June 28–30, 1863, in and around the town while the brigade of John B. Gordon marched to the Susquehanna River at Wrightsville and back. Early laid York under tribute and collected food, supplies, clothing, shoes, and $28,000 in cash from citizens and merchants before departing westward obeying the revised orders of Robert E. Lee. The sprawling York U.S. Army Hospital on Penn Commons served thousands of Union soldiers wounded at the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg.
In the Postbellum era (1865–1877), York remained a regional center for local agriculture, but increasingly became an important industrial center, with such industries as steam engines, railroad manufacturing, and papermaking coming to the forefront. York also features some unique architecture ranging from colonial era buildings to large gothic churches.
The York Motor Car Co. built Pullman automobiles on North George St. from 1905 thorough 1917. An early and unique six-wheeled prototype was involved in one of the city's first known automobile accidents. Another model was driven to San Francisco and back over about one month to prove its reliability several years before the creation of the Lincoln Highway which ran through town, connecting New York and San Francisco.
The York area had also been home for more than 100 years to the Pfaltzgraff company, which built its first pottery factory in the area in 1895 and continued manufacturing in York until 2005. Though now produced by The Hershey Company, the York Peppermint Pattie was created in York in 1940.
The city of York experienced many noteworthy achievements and embarrassments to start the 21st century.
In 2002, the city faced a budget shortfall of $1,000,000. Mayor John S. Brenner's plan to raise the money by asking York County's 302,000 adult residents to donate $3.32 to the city received national attention. The plan, referred to by some as the "Big Mac" Plan, did not raise all the moneys sought.
After many years of attempting to secure funding for a stadium and a baseball team to play in it, the first decade of the century saw York realize both goals. In 2007, Santander Stadium, home of the York Revolution, opened in the Arch Street neighborhood. The stadium, along with other large projects such as the York County Judicial Center and the Codo 241 luxury apartment lofts, symbolizes York's extensive redevelopment efforts.
York was featured during the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, when National Public Radio's Michele Norris and Steve Inskeep chose to showcase the city in "The York Project: Race & the '08 Vote." The program was aired as a 7-part series and featured different York citizens discussing race relations, racial perceptions, and the emotions inspired by the 2008 election. Norris stated that York was chosen due to its central location in a battleground state, its rich history (including its strained race relations), and demographics. On June 19, 2009, Norris announced on the air that she was taking time off to write a book inspired by her conversations "with a diverse group of voters" in York.
In 2009, Kim Bracey won the Democratic primary and became the favored candidate for mayor. She won the general election in November against Republican opponent Wendell Banks and took office on the first Monday in 2010 as the city's first African-American and second woman mayor.
The city has been called an "architectural museum," because the downtown features numerous well-preserved historic structures, such as the 1741 Golden Plough Tavern, the 1751 General Horatio Gates House, the 1766 York Meetinghouse, the 1863 Billmeyer House, the 1888 York Central Market, and the 1907 Moorish Revival Temple Beth Israel. Other notable buildings are the Laurel-Rex Fire Company House, Forry House, Farmers Market, Barnett Bobb House, Cookes House, United Cigar Manufacturing Company building, Stevens School, York Dispatch Newspaper Offices, and York Armory.
Local corporations and industry
York Barbell is a reseller of barbells and other equipment for weight training and bodybuilding, and is the home of the USA Weightlifting Hall of Fame. A large Harley-Davidson motorcycle factory, which employs roughly half of Harley's production workforce, is located in York.
York is headquarters to York International, a Johnson Controls Company and one of the largest suppliers of HVAC systems in the United States. On February 2, 1998, a massive explosion occurred at the York International plant. A spark had set off a leak in the nearby propane storage house. The blast was felt up to 25 miles away, and blew out windows nearby as well as knocking down doors. About 20 people were injured in the blast but only one person was killed, as the explosion fortunately occurred during a shift change.
The Stauffer Biscuit Company (owned by Meiji Seika of Japan since February 2004) is rooted in York and has produced animal crackers since 1871. A major regional department store, The Bon-Ton, is headquartered in York. Just north of York is one of only four Starbucks roasting facilities in the world. York also boasts a BAE Systems facility which assembles various military tanks and equipment.
Geography and climate
York is located at(39.962692, −76.728043).
|Gettysburg, Chambersburg||Lancaster, Philadelphia|
|Hanover, Frederick||Baltimore, Washington, D.C.||Philadelphia|
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.3 square miles (14 km2), of which, 5.2 square miles (13 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (1.14%) is water.
Like most of Pennsylvania, York has a humid continental climate, it is characterized by warm to hot, humid summers and moderately cold winters. The mean annual precipitation total of 42.7 inches (1,085 mm) is fairly evenly spread throughout the year, and falls on an average of 126.3 days per annum. The extreme temperatures range from 107 °F (42 °C), set on July 2, 1901, to −21 °F (−29.4 °C), recorded on January 28, 1925 and January 21, 1994. During Fall and Spring seasons the temperatures are comfortable and mild.
|Climate data for York, Pennsylvania (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °F (°C)||39.9
|Average low °F (°C)||20.9
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.01
|Snowfall inches (cm)||8.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.0||9.8||11.1||12.1||12.8||11.7||10.9||10.0||9.5||8.2||10.2||10.0||126.3|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||3.9||2.6||1.4||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.5||1.7||10.4|
York is the largest principal city of the York-Hanover-Gettysburg CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the York-Hanover metropolitan area (York County) and the Gettysburg micropolitan area (Adams County), which had a combined population of 473,043 at the 2000 census.
As of the 2010 census, the city was 51.2% White, 28.0% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.2% Asian, and 6.3% were two or more races. 28.5% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry.
As of the census of 2000, there were 40,862 people, 16,137 households, and 9,246 families residing in the city. The population density was 7,852.2 people per square mile (3,034.0/km²). There were 18,534 housing units at an average density of 3,561.6 per square mile (1,376.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.75% White, 25.13% African American, 0.42% Native American, 1.40% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.40% from other races, and 3.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.19% of the population.
There were 16,137 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 20.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.17.
In the city the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,475, and the median income for a family was $30,762. Males had a median income of $26,792 versus $20,612 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,439. About 20.0% of families and 23.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.
York is home to the Strand-Capitol Performing Arts Center, which brings many nationally acclaimed acts to the York area. Performers here have included Kenny G, Bill Cosby, B.B. King, Béla Fleck, and George Carlin. The historic Capitol Theatre also features many independent and foreign films, making it the only venue in York (and sometimes the entire Susquehanna Valley) to feature some rare, yet critically acclaimed films. The Strand Studio has also branched out from the recently Renovated Strand-Capitol Performing Arts Center. The Studio offers live music, usually jazz & acoustic, for the community.
Today, much of York's culture represents the city's evolving role as an agricultural and industrial center. The historic York Fair, which claims to be the country's oldest, traces its roots to 1765. It runs every year in September for 10 days, encompassing an entire week and two weekends. In addition to typical fair attractions, such as rides, games and contests, it also wins regional recognition for hosting many (usually country) musical artists, such as Alabama, Gretchen Wilson, Carrie Underwood, Toby Keith, and Lynyrd Skynyrd.
The fairgrounds, branded the York Expo Center, also hosts the annual National Street Rod Association Street Rod Nationals East, the largest annual street rod event in the Eastern US. The event brings thousands of street rods into the city for a few days in June. On Friday afternoon the city holds a parade through the center of the city for participating vehicles.
The York County Heritage Trust (YCHT) is a not-for-profit educational institution that preserves and uses its collections, historic sites and museums to inspire people to explore the history and culture of York County, Pennsylvania. YCHT maintains eight historical sites that preserve and present 300 years of York County's rich and diverse history. The YCHT was founded in 1999 after a merger of the Historical Society of York County and the Agricultural and Industrial Museum of York County (AIM). Currently, the YCHT historical sites include the Worker's House (c. 1875), Golden Plough Tavern (c.1741), the Barnett Bobb Log House (1812), the Bonham House (c.1885) and old Eastern Market House (c.1886). In 1992, AIM acquired an industrial complex consisting of six buildings (c.1874 to 1955); three of the buildings were renovated and now house the industrial portion of the collection. The YCHT also hosts a variety of events throughout the year. The YCHT also holds the rights to the Murals of York, PA, a group of murals that depict York's rich history.
York City Recreation and Parks helps sponsor the Olde York Street Fair each year on Mothers Day, the second Sunday of May – a tradition since the early 1980s. In recent years more than 150 art, craft and food vendors have lined Market and George streets. Average attendance was 60,000 people as of 2004, according to city officials.
The New York Wire Company, located in York, holds the world record for the loudest music without amplification from a non-musical instrument. Every Christmas Eve the company uses a compressor to create air pressure then releases it through a series of tubes using a device much like a slide whistle. (Prior to 2010, the pressure was created using steam produced by a boiler.) The music is 140 dB loud and can be heard 10 to 12 miles away with proper weather conditions. Various Christmas music is played for a short time around midnight. It is thought that the tradition was started around 1925.
The city's main shopping centers are York Galleria and West Manchester Mall.
York and the surrounding area are served by the York City, Dallastown, Eastern York, West York, Central York, York Suburban, Southern York County, Red Lion, Northeastern York, Dover, Spring Grove, and South Eastern public school districts. Of the several private Christian schools in the area, the largest is York Catholic High School. In 2009 Helen Thackston Middle School opened on East Philadelphia Street.
The city is home to York College of Pennsylvania, which was originally founded in 1787; Penn State York; YTI Career Institute (YTI), which offers accredited technology- and business-based degree programs; Yorktowne Business Institute (YBI) & School of Culinary Arts, which offers accredited degree and diploma programs in the Business, Medical and Culinary fields; York Time Institute; HACC's York Campus; and The Art Institute of York-Pennsylvania, formerly Bradley Academy for the Visual Arts.
The city of York is protected at all hours by the 67 professional firefighters and 60 volunteer firefighters of the city of York Fire Department (YFD). The YFD operates out of four fire stations, located throughout the city, and maintains a fire apparatus fleet of 4 engines, 2 trucks, 1 service, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The YFD responds to approximately 2,700 emergency calls annually.
Fire Station Locations and Apparatus
- Fire Headquarters – Fire Station # 99-1 – 49 S. Duke St.
- Engine 99-1
- Engine 99-3(Reserve)
- Truck 99-1
- Fire Station # 99-2 – 273 W. Market St.
- Engine 99-2
- Engine 99-4(Reserve)
- Truck 99-2(Reserve)
- Service 99-1
- Chief 99(Command Unit)
- Chief 99-1(Command Unit)
- Fire Station # 99-5 – 833 E. Market St.
- Engine 99-5
- Fire Station # 99-9 – 800 Roosevelt Ave.
- Engine 99-9
- Service 99-2(Reserve)
|York Revolution||ALPB, Baseball||Sovereign Bank Stadium||2007||2|
|York Capitals||AIF, Indoor football||York City Ice Arena||2012|
The York Revolution plays in the independent Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. After 36 years without professional baseball, the Revolution arrived in 2007 to fill the void left by the departed York White Roses. The Revolution are named after the city's colonial past, when the Continental Congress met in York and passed the Articles of Confederation during the Revolutionary War. The Revolution continue the old baseball rivalry between York and the nearby city of Lancaster. The Revolution play at Sovereign Bank Stadium in York's Arch Street neighborhood. The stadium features a plaza and statue in honor of MLB Hall of Fame third baseman Brooks Robinson, a one-time member of the aforementioned White Roses, with whom he made his professional baseball debut in 1955. Robinson currently serves as a special assistant and advisor to Opening Day Partners, the group largely responsible for bringing professional baseball back to York.
Sovereign Bank Stadium has the distinction of having the tallest wall in baseball. At 37 feet, 8 inches, the left field wall of York's ballpark surpasses the height of the Green Monster at Fenway Park, the home of the Boston Red Sox.
The people of York (the White Rose City) and the similar city of Lancaster (the Red Rose City) across the Susquehanna River often engage in rivalry and competition that has its roots in the Wars of the Roses. Both cities take their names from the English cities, York and Lancaster, from which the opposing royal houses took their names in the 15th century wars.
The War of the Roses All-Star Game is played in York every year over the weekend of Thanksgiving. The game pits the best high school football players in their senior seasons from the York-Adams League against a similar team from the Lancaster-Lebanon League. As the game only involves seniors and occurs during the first weekend of the PIAA District 3 football playoffs (players on teams which qualify for the playoffs do not participate), it is the final high school football game for each of the participants.
Former Minnesota Vikings, Atlanta Falcons, and San Francisco 49ers defensive lineman Chris Doleman graduated from York's William Penn High School. York was the birthplace of former New York Giants Linebacker Andre Powell, former Miami Dolphins Running Back Woodrow (Woody) Bennett, former Los Angeles Raiders and Atlanta Falcons Tackle/Guard Lincoln Kennedy and former Atlanta Falcons Safety Omar Brown. Pittsburgh Steelers Offensive Coordinator, Bruce Arians, is also a graduate of William Penn Senior High School (1970). New York Giants Offensive Tackle William Beatty is also a York, Pennsylvania native.
The York Capitals were founded in 2012 and are to begin play with the American Indoor Football league in April 2013.
The Bob Hoffman Auditorium at York Barbell hosts a variety of powerlifting, Olympic lifting, strongman and bodybuilding competitions and shows.
York is also the home of the York County Silver Bullets semiprofessional football team (Colonial Football Alliance). In their 2006 inaugural season they had a record of 5 and 5, gaining a playoff berth only to lose in the first round.
"The Pogo Squad", a group of about twelve extreme pogo performers, is located in York. They participate in area events, including the York St. Patrick's Day Parade, and perform shows. A photo of one member's pogo stunt against a sunset background won first place out of over 800 entries in a 2007 York newspaper photo contest.
York was home to the Thunder D'ohm Skateboard Park, now defunct. There has been a new park built entitled "Reid Menzer Memorial Skatepark", named for a York Catholic High School student who was killed riding a skateboard like a streetluge.
York US30 was a drag strip just outside of York. It held the 1965 Super Stock championships – "the largest one day drag race" in the United States. An annual Musclecar Madness event is held in York to commemorate the defunct strip.
York is unusual in that it supports two daily newspapers, despite its relatively small size. The York Daily Record/Sunday News is published mornings, seven days a week, and The York Dispatch is published Monday through Friday afternoons. The Daily Record/Sunday News currently has the lead in terms of circulations of the daily newspapers.
The York area is part of the Susquehanna Valley (Harrisburg/Lancaster/Lebanon/York) media market. Of the major television network affiliates in this media market, only one, the Fox affiliate WPMT, has its base of operations in York. Other stations in the market include NBC Affiliate WGAL, from Lancaster, ABC affiliate WHTM-TV, CBS Affiliate WHP-TV, CW Affiliate WLYH, and PBS member WITF-TV, all from Harrisburg. It is also not uncommon for York residents to receive some stations from the Baltimore, Maryland media market, due to its proximity to the south of York.
York has a Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable TV station called WRCT (White Rose Community Television) wrct.tv  which used to be YCAT (York Community Access Television).
The pop music radio station, WSBA AM 910, achieved high ratings in not only York, but also in nearby Harrisburg and Lancaster, during the 1960s and 1970s. WSBA, now a news-talk station, was well known for being the flagship station of Susquehanna Broadcasting, which had its corporate offices in York, as well.
York's "98 YCR" was once a very popular pop music station with DJ Captain Connors. The radio station has since switched formats to classic 60s, 70s, and 80s music. Now calling itself "The Peak" 98.5 "York's Classic Hits", WYCR remains popular, but with older generations.
Other radio stations in York include WVYC from York College, WARM FM, WQXA FM, and WOYK.
FM stations in the greater York, Pennsylvania metropolitan area include:
|Callsign||MHz||Band||"Name" Format, Owner||City of license||HD-Radio||Multicasting|
|WDCV||88.3||FM||Indie/College Rock, Dickinson College||Carlisle||–||–|
|WXPH||88.7||FM||WXPN relay, University of Pennsylvania||Harrisburg||–||–|
|WSYC||88.7||FM||Alternative, Shippensburg University||Shippensburg||–||–|
|WVMM||90.7||FM||Indie/College Rock, Messiah College||Grantham||No||–|
|WJAZ||91.7||FM||WRTI relay, Classical/Jazz, Temple University||Harrisburg||No||–|
|WLAN||96.9||FM||"FM 97" Top 40||Lancaster||No||–|
|WRVV||97.3||FM||"The River" Classic Hits and the Best of Today's Rock||Harrisburg||Yes||Yes|
|WIYY||97.9||FM||"98 Rock" Rock||Baltimore, MD||Yes||Yes|
|WYCR||98.5||FM||98.5 The Peak||York||No||–|
|WQLV||98.9||FM||"Love 99" Adult Contemporary||Millersburg||No||–|
|WVYC||99.7||FM||Indie/College Rock, York College||York, PA||No||Yes|
|WFRE||99.9||FM||"Free Country"||Frederick, MD||Yes||Yes|
|WROZ||101.3||FM||"The Rose" Adult Contemporary||Lancaster||Yes||No|
|WARM||103.3||FM||"Warm 103" Adult Contemporary||York||Yes||No|
|WNNK||104.1||FM||"Wink 104" Hot AC||Harrisburg||Yes||No|
|WQXA||105.7||FM||"105.7 The X" Hard Rock||York||No||–|
|WZCY-FM||106.7||FM||"Mix" Adult Hits||Hershey||No||–|
York is officially twinned with:
- – Arles, France – since 1954
- – Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany – since 1981
York is served, through public transportation, by Rabbit Transit, which operates multiple bus routes in the city and the surrounding suburbs. In 2006 a rabbitEXPRESS bus route was established to transport commuters to Harrisburg and back, making six round trips weekdays. Rabbit Transit introduced a new route on February 2, 2009 that provides three daily round trips between York and Timonium, Maryland. The $5 fare each way covers 80% of the operating costs.
In addition to Rabbit Transit the city has a Greyhound/Trailways bus depot where service through Harrisburg to Syracuse, or to Baltimore and Washington, D.C. is provided by Greyhound Lines. Service through Lancaster to Philadelphia and New York City is provided by Capitol Trailways.
Rail enthusiasts have suggested commuter rail service could be started between York and Philadelphia with much of the necessary infrastructure already in place, using SEPTA's system. Transportation planners say this is too expensive, with bus and van services more feasible. The former Pennsylvania Railroad station for York now lies along the York County Heritage Rail Trail across from the baseball park.
York does not have any commercial airports, though the small York Airport (THV) is located 7 miles southwest in Thomasville. Many residents use either Baltimore-Washington International (BWI) or Harrisburg International Airport (MDT).
Lancaster, 24 miles to the east, has frequent Amtrak train service to Philadelphia.
- List of people from York, Pennsylvania
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ "Cities in Pennsylvania". travelmath.com. http://www.travelmath.com/cities-in/Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 19, 2009.
- ^ Glatfelter, Charles H. "The Continental Congress Meets a German Town". hsp.org. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. http://www.hsp.org/default.aspx?id=492. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- ^ "The Straight Dope: York, Pennsylvania: First capital of the United States?". http://www.straightdope.com/columns/041210.html.
- ^ "History of York: 1776–1789". York Daily Record. September 14, 2006. http://www.ydr.com/ntbf/ci_4336786. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
- ^ McClure, James, Nine Months in York Town. (York, Pennsylvania: York Daily Record, 2001)
- ^ Mingus, Scott L., Flames Beyond Gettysburg: The Gordon Expedition, June 1863. (Columbus, Ohio: Ironclad Publishing, 2009)
- ^ "1903: York County; Six-wheeled car crashes". York Daily Record / Sunday News. September 14, 2006. http://ydr.inyork.com/ntbf/ci_4336810. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
- ^ "Pfaltzgraff plant to close (250 jobs lost)". York Daily Record. August 13, 2005. http://www.pfaltzgraff.com/mainsubpages/history.asp. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
- ^ "Pfaltzgraff plant to close (250 jobs lost)". York Daily Record. August 13, 2005.
- ^ "YORK peppermint pattie". The Hershey Company. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070807115621/http://www.hersheys.com/products/details/york.asp. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
- ^ "National Briefing: Mid-Atlantic: Pennsylvania: Mayor Seeks $3 Donations". New York Times. December 21, 2002. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/21/us/national-briefing-mid-atlantic-pennsylvania-mayor-seeks-3-donations.html?scp=4&sq=York,%20Pennsylvania%20&%20Brenner&st=cse. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- ^ "The York Project: Race & the '08 Vote". Propagandica. March 17, 2009. http://propagandica.wordpress.com/2009/03/07/the-york-project-race-the-08-vote/. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- ^ "All Things Considered". NPR. June 19, 2009. http://www.wnyc.org/flashplayer/player.html#/play/%2Fstream%2Fatc%2F06192009.xspf. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- ^ Barnes, Tom (November 5, 2009). "Harrisburg, York make history". post-gazette.com (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette). http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/09309/1011018-454.stm. Retrieved November 18, 2009. "In York, Kim Bracey, the city's ex-economic development director and a retired Air Force sergeant, became the first African-American and only the second woman (after Elizabeth Marshall, who is white, in 1978) to be elected mayor."
- ^ "Virtual York". Scott D. Butcher. http://www.yorklinks.net/VirtYork/virtyork.htm. Retrieved February 24, 2009.
- ^ "Golden Plough Tavern". Scott D. Butcher. http://www.yorklinks.net/VirtYork/plough.htm. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- ^ "General Horatio Gates House". Scott D. Butcher. http://www.yorklinks.net/VirtYork/gateshse.htm. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- ^ "York Meetinghouse". The Gombach Group. http://www.livingplaces.com/PA/York_County/York_City/York_Meetinghouse.html. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- ^ "The Billmeyer House". Scott D. Butcher. http://www.yorklinks.net/VirtYork/billmyr.htm. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- ^ "Central Market House". Scott D. Butcher. http://www.yorklinks.net/VirtYork/cntrlmrk.htm. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html.
- ^ "Hall of Fame". York Barbell Company. Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070611122442/http://www.yorkbarbell.com/hallfame/hall00.html. Retrieved July 3, 2007.
- ^ "Vehicle Operations". Harley-Davidson. http://www.harley-davidson.com/wcm/Content/Pages/Factory_Tours/york.jsp?locale=en_US. Retrieved July 3, 2007.
- ^ "Voith celebrates 135th anniversary in York, Pennsylvania". Voith Group. http://voith.com/en/press/press-releases-99_39510.html. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- ^ Lagassa, G. (March 1, 1990). "Bibliographic Citation". North American turbine companies. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information. http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=5425668.
- ^ "Statement of Andrea Kidd Taylor, Dr.P.H.". Statements from Hearings held in the 105th Congress, Second Session. U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. October 7, 1998. http://epw.senate.gov/105th/tay_10-7.htm. Retrieved August 26, 2007.
- ^ "OSHA to Reduce York's Citations and Fines". LookSmart Find Articles. March 1999. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071115012026/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3071/is_199903/ai_n13102685. Retrieved August 26, 2007.
- ^ "Stauffer's Company History". stauffers.net. Stauffer Biscuit Company. http://www.stauffers.net/company/history. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
- ^ "Bon-Ton Stores Company Description". hoovers.com. Hoover's. http://www.hoovers.com/bon-ton-stores/--ID__13323--/free-co-profile.xhtml. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
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- ^ "BAE Systems To Remanufacture And Upgrade Bradley Vehicles". spacedaily.com. SpaceDaily. August 9, 2006. http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/BAE_Systems_To_Remanufacture_And_Upgrade_Bradley_Vehicles_999.html. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
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|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for York, PA.|
- York Daily Record/Sunday News
- Directory of York County regional history sites
- City of York (official site)
- York County Heritage Trust
- York County USGenWeb Project
- York Town Square history blog
| Capital of the United States of America
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at York, Pennsylvania. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|