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York County, Maine
York County Courthouse, Alfred, ME.jpg
York County Courthouse in Alfred
Seal of York County, Maine
Seal
Map of Maine highlighting York County
Location in the state of Maine
Map of the U.S. highlighting Maine
Maine's location in the U.S.
Founded 1636
Named for York, England[1]
Seat Alfred
Largest city Biddeford
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

1,270 sq mi (3,289 km²)
991 sq mi (2,567 km²)
279 sq mi (723 km²), 22%
Population
 - (2020)
 - Density

211,972
Congressional district 1st
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Website http://www.yorkcountymaine.gov/

York County is the southwesternmost county in the U.S. state of Maine, along the state of New Hampshire's eastern border. It is divided from Strafford County, New Hampshire, by the Salmon Falls River, and the connected tidal estuary—the Piscataqua River.

York County was permanently established in 1639. It is the state's oldest county and one of the oldest in the United States. Several of Maine's earliest colonial settlements are found in the county. As of the 2020 census, its population was 211,972,[2] making it Maine's second-most populous county. Its county seat is Alfred.[3]

York County is part of the PortlandSouth Portland, Maine Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History[]

1622 patent[]

The first patent establishing the Province of Maine was granted on August 10, 1622, to Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason by the Plymouth Council for New England, which itself had been granted a royal patent by James I to the coast of North America between the 40th and the 48th parallels "from sea to sea". This first patent encompassed the coast between the Merrimack and Kennebec rivers, as well as an irregular parcel of land between the headwaters of the two rivers. In 1629, Gorges and Mason agreed to split the patent at the Piscataqua River, with Mason retaining the land south of the river as the Province of New Hampshire.

Gorges named his more northerly piece of territory New Somersetshire. This venture failed, however, because of lack of funds and colonial settlement. Also failed was a venture by Capt. Christopher Levett, an agent for Gorges and a member of the Council for New England. With the King's blessing, Levett embarked on a scheme to found a colony on the site of present-day Portland. Levett was granted 6,000 acres (24 km2) of land, the first Englishman to own the soil of Portland. There he proposed to found a settlement named York after the city of his birth in England. Ultimately, the project was abandoned, the men Levett left behind disappeared, and Levett died aboard ship on his return to England from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. One part of Levett's scheme did survive: the name of York, which now adorns the county.

The now-decommissioned Fort Levett on Cushing Island in Casco Bay is named for Capt. Levett.

1639 patent[]

In 1639, Gorges obtained a renewed patent, the Gorges Patent, for the area between the Piscataqua and Kennebec Rivers, in the form of a royal charter from Charles I of England. The area was roughly the same as that covered in the 1622 patent after the 1629 split with Mason. The second colony also foundered for lack of money and settlers, although it survived the death of Gorges in 1647.

Absorption by Massachusetts[]

In the 1650s the nearby Massachusetts Bay Colony asserted territorial claims over what is now southern Maine, and by 1658 had completely absorbed what is now southwestern Maine into York County, Massachusetts.

The first known and recorded offer for a purchase of land in York County is in 1668, when Francis Small traded goods with the Newichewannock tribe of this area. Their Chief Wesumbe, also known as Captain Sandy, was friendly with Small and warned him of a plot against his life. A group of renegade tribesmen planned on murdering Small instead of paying him with the furs that were owed to him. Small escaped after watching his house in what is now Cornish, Maine, burn to the ground. Small returned and rebuilt. The Chief made up the loss by selling Small all the lands bounded by the Great and Little Ossipee Rivers, the Saco River, and the New Hampshire border. Known now as the five Ossipee towns, the tract included all of Limington, Limerick, Cornish (formerly named Francisborough), Newfield and Parsonsfield.

The large size of the county led to its division in 1760, with Cumberland and Lincoln counties carved out of its eastern portions. When Massachusetts adopted its state government in 1780, it created the District of Maine to manage its eastern territories. In 1805 the northern portion of York County was separated to form part of Oxford County. When Maine achieved statehood in 1820 all of the counties of the District of Maine became counties of Maine.

Geography[]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,270 square miles (3,300 km2), of which 991 square miles (2,570 km2) is land and 279 square miles (720 km2) (22%) is water.[4]

Community High Points
Mountain Name Elevation (feet) Community
Clark Mountain 1,320 Cornish
Wiggin Mountain 1,300 Parsonsfield
Sawyer Mountain, main summit 1,200 Limington
Sawyer Mountain, north summit 1,200 Limerick
Province Mountain 1,176 Newfield
Fort Ridge, main summit 1,114 Shapleigh
Ossipee Hill 1,058 Waterboro
Hussey Hill 1,051 Acton
Fort Ridge, south slope 1,000 Alfred
Prospect Hill 880 Lebanon
Bauneg Beg Hill 866 North Berwick
Mount Agamenticus 692 York
Mount Hope 680 Sanford
Whitehouse Hill 581 Hollis
Grant Hill 502 Lyman
No name (hill) 385 Buxton
Welch Hill 370 South Berwick
No name (hill) 360 Wells
Clark Hill 360 Dayton
Third Hill 360 Eliot
No name (hill) 300 Biddeford
No name (hill) 240 Arundel
No name (hill) 230 Saco
No name (hill) 223 Kennebunk
6 unnamed locations 200 Kennebunkport
5 unnamed locations 160 Ogunquit
Cutts Ridge 140 Kittery
No name (hill) 138 Old Orchard Beach

Adjacent counties[]

National protected area[]

  • Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (part)

Demographics[]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 29,078
1800 37,896 30.3%
1810 41,877 10.5%
1820 46,283 10.5%
1830 51,722 11.8%
1840 54,034 4.5%
1850 60,098 11.2%
1860 62,107 3.3%
1870 60,174 −3.1%
1880 62,257 3.5%
1890 62,829 0.9%
1900 64,885 3.3%
1910 68,526 5.6%
1920 70,696 3.2%
1930 72,934 3.2%
1940 82,550 13.2%
1950 93,541 13.3%
1960 99,402 6.3%
1970 111,576 12.2%
1980 139,666 25.2%
1990 164,587 17.8%
2000 186,742 13.5%
2010 197,131 5.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[5]
1790–1960[6] 1900–1990[7]
1990–2000[8] 2010–2019[9]

2000 census[]

At the 2000 census,[10] there were 186,742 people, 74,563 households and 50,851 families living in the county. The population density was 188 per square mile (73/km2). There were 94,234 housing units at an average density of 95 per square mile (37/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 97.56% White, 0.42% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, and 0.85% from two or more races. 0.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The most cited ethnicities were English (17.9%), French (14.5%), French Canadian (13.9%), Irish (12.5%), United States or American (9.6%) and Italian (5.1%). 90.84% of the population spoke English and 6.92% spoke French as their first language.[11]

There were 74,563 households, of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.80% were non-families. 24.90% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.96.

Age distribution was 24.80% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 30.00% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, and 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 94.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median age was 38 years.

The median household income was $43,630, and the median family income was $51,419. Males had a median income of $36,317 versus $26,016 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,225. About 5.90% of families and 8.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.90% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[]

As of the 2010 United States census, there were 197,131 people, 81,009 households, and 53,136 families living in the county.[12] The population density was 199.0 inhabitants per square mile (76.8 /km2). There were 105,773 housing units at an average density of 106.8 per square mile (41.2 /km2).[13] The racial makeup of the county was 96.4% white, 1.1% Asian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.3% of the population.[12] In terms of ancestry, 22.3% were English, 19.3% were Irish, 9.8% were French Canadian, 8.1% were German, 7.9% were Italian, 5.8% were American, and 5.6% were Scottish.[14]

Of the 81,009 households, 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families, and 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 43.0 years.[12]

The median income for a household in the county was $55,008 and the median income for a family was $65,077. Males had a median income of $47,117 versus $34,001 for females. The per capita income for the county was $27,137. About 5.6% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.[15]

Politics[]

York County has trended Democratic in the second half of the 20th century and into the 21st century. Although home to the Bush family compound, it only supported the Bush family in one of its four presidential runs (that of George H.W. Bush in 1988). At the same time, it has voted for Republican Senator Susan Collins in all of her reelection campaigns, most recently in 2020.

United States presidential election results for York County, Maine[16]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 54,817 42.28% 71,189 54.90% 3,653 2.82%
2016 50,403 44.11% 55,844 48.87% 8,027 7.02%
2012 43,900 40.63% 61,551 56.96% 2,606 2.41%
2008 42,389 38.83% 64,799 59.36% 1,973 1.81%
2004 49,526 45.01% 58,702 53.35% 1,805 1.64%
2000 42,304 44.74% 46,618 49.31% 5,628 5.95%
1996 26,594 32.05% 42,317 51.00% 14,068 16.95%
1992 32,241 34.09% 35,507 37.55% 26,815 28.36%
1988 46,334 59.98% 30,262 39.17% 653 0.85%
1984 43,554 60.43% 28,241 39.19% 275 0.38%
1980 31,412 46.31% 28,279 41.69% 8,146 12.01%
1976 27,380 44.95% 31,996 52.52% 1,540 2.53%
1972 30,452 57.53% 22,464 42.44% 20 0.04%
1968 18,931 38.91% 28,817 59.23% 904 1.86%
1964 13,339 28.10% 34,083 71.80% 45 0.09%
1960 25,763 49.60% 26,171 50.39% 3 0.01%
1956 29,256 62.03% 17,910 37.97% 0 0.00%
1952 27,045 56.74% 20,524 43.06% 95 0.20%
1948 17,819 46.00% 20,554 53.06% 364 0.94%
1944 18,122 45.82% 21,386 54.08% 39 0.10%
1940 16,547 42.59% 22,276 57.33% 32 0.08%
1936 17,827 48.09% 18,017 48.60% 1,226 3.31%
1932 17,301 53.53% 14,760 45.67% 258 0.80%
1928 18,671 64.78% 10,030 34.80% 119 0.41%
1924 16,244 68.17% 6,004 25.20% 1,580 6.63%
1920 13,536 65.77% 6,852 33.29% 192 0.93%
1916 6,375 47.45% 6,854 51.02% 206 1.53%
1912 3,960 30.25% 5,121 39.12% 4,008 30.62%
1908 6,700 59.64% 4,090 36.40% 445 3.96%
1904 7,096 68.41% 2,866 27.63% 411 3.96%
1900 6,949 61.52% 4,046 35.82% 300 2.66%
1896 7,532 66.44% 3,456 30.49% 348 3.07%
1892 6,387 53.20% 5,237 43.62% 382 3.18%
1888 7,255 55.20% 5,576 42.43% 311 2.37%
1884 7,127 51.01% 5,939 42.51% 906 6.48%
1880 7,700 51.23% 7,090 47.18% 239 1.59%



Voter registration[]

Template:Party color cellTemplate:Party color cellTemplate:Party color cellTemplate:Party color cellTemplate:Party color cell
Voter registration and party enrollment as of May 2019 [17]
Unenrolled 60,848 38.41%
Democratic 51,539 32.54%
Republican 40,809 25.76%
Green Independent 5,202 3.28%
Libertarian 10 0.01%
Total 158,408 100%

Communities[]

Cities[]

Towns[]

  • Acton
  • Alfred (county seat)
  • Arundel
  • Berwick
  • Buxton
  • Cornish
  • Dayton
  • Eliot
  • Hollis
  • Kennebunk
  • Kennebunkport
  • Kittery
  • Lebanon
  • Limerick
  • Limington
  • Lyman
  • Newfield
  • North Berwick
  • Ogunquit
  • Old Orchard Beach
  • Parsonsfield
  • Shapleigh
  • South Berwick
  • Waterboro
  • Wells
  • York

Census-designated places[]

  • Alfred
  • Berwick
  • Cape Neddick
  • Cornish
  • Kennebunk
  • Kennebunkport
  • Kezar Falls
  • Kittery
  • Kittery Point
  • Lake Arrowhead
  • North Berwick
  • South Berwick
  • South Eliot
  • West Kennebunk
  • York Harbor

Unincorporated villages or neighborhoods[]

  • Bald Head
  • Bar Mills
  • Bedell Crossing
  • Cape Porpoise
  • East Parsonsfield
  • East Waterboro
  • Felch Corner
  • Ocean Park
  • Springvale
  • York Beach
  • York Cliffs
York County's most populous cities and towns at the 2010 US Census
Biddeford
(21,277)
Sanford
(20,798)
Saco
(18,482)
York
(12,529)
Kennebunk
(10,798)
Wells
(9,589)
Kittery
(9,490)
Old Orchard Beach
(8,624)
Buxton
(8,034)
Waterboro
(7,693)
Berwick
(7,246)
South Berwick
(7,220)
Eliot
(6,204)
Lebanon
(6,031)
North Berwick
(4,576)
Lyman
(4,344)
Hollis
(4,281)
Arundel
(4,022)
Limington
(3,713)
Kennebunkport
(3,474)
Alfred
(3,019)
Limerick
(2,892)
Shapleigh
(2,668)
Acton
(2,447)
Dayton
(1,965)
Parsonsfield
(1,898)
Newfield
(1,522)
Cornish
(1,403)
Ogunquit
(892)

See also[]

  • History of Maine
  • York County, Maine Tercentenary half dollar, 1936 commemorative coin
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in York County, Maine

References[]

  1. ^ Yates, Edgar A.P. (Jun 13, 1928). "Some Maine town names". The Lewiston Daily Sun: pp. 4. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=3aQgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=FWkFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1463%2C5719635. 
  2. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: York County, Maine". United States Census Bureau. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/profile?g=0500000US23031. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  4. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/docs/gazetteer/counties_list_23.txt. 
  5. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html. 
  6. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  7. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/me190090.txt. 
  8. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  9. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/23/23031.html. 
  10. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov. 
  11. ^ "Language Map Data Center". http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=23&county_id=31&mode=geographic&zip=&place_id=&cty_id=&ll=all&a=&ea=&order=r. 
  12. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_DP/DPDP1/0500000US23031. 
  13. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_SF1/GCTPH1.CY07/0500000US23031. 
  14. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/10_5YR/DP02/0500000US23031. 
  15. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/10_5YR/DP03/0500000US23031. 
  16. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS. 
  17. ^ Bureau of Corporations, Elections & Commissions (5 May 2019). "Registered & Enrolled Voters - Statewide" (PDF). Department of the Secretary of State, State of Maine. p. 32. https://www.maine.gov/sos/cec/elec/data/data-pdf/r-e-active.pdf. 

Further reading[]

External links[]

Coordinates: 43°25′N 70°40′W / 43.41, -70.67


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at York County, Maine. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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