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Zabozhnich'e Russian: Забожничье - a term in the Novgorod chronicle, apparently, the name of one of the types of princely tribute in the Novgorod land .

1228 was barren for Novgorod land . According to the chronicle [1] (in modern translation) :

" that autumn there were great rains day and night ... Until the day Nikolina saw no light: no people could get hay or remove the cornfields. Because of the rains, almost the entire crop died, and then the flood began. " And it was doubly scary, because the food reserves significantly reduced the Pereyaslavl army, which was going to march on Riga in the summer and stood on the Settlement .

Veche sent to Yaroslav Vsevolodovich II , Prince of Novgorod, to immediately go to Novgorod, lay the wreckage, forbade the princely judges to drive around the “region” ][1]:

" Come to us, postpone the postponed, do not send judges to the parish. With all our will and all the letters of Yaroslavov, you are our prince. Or are you on your own, and we on our own? "

Interpretation[]

The meaning of the word is controversial.

Karamzin suggests that the princely tribute, which was collected from the German churches in Novgorod, was called zabozhnichy, because the Catholic churches were mainly called gods in Russia. It is more likely that the tax on degraded bread, levied in kind, was called zabozhnichy. In particular, S. M. Solov'ev notes, “is it possible to take the sheir from the zbozh (zhito) more quickly ” [2]

M.N. Tikhomirov notes: “It’s not quite clear what“ zabozhnichie ”means, which Novgorod citizens were seeking to cancel, ” and, referring to V.I. Dahl (“to forget - to appropriate to divine right, where there is no evidence”), suggests that goes "about the lands and people captured by the prince and his people by a one-sided" oath "before the court?". I. Ya. Froyanov considers this interpretation doubtful, pointing to the groundless convergence of the noun and the verb and noting that, unlike movable property, the lack of evidence in the case of real estate is unrealistic.

B. A. Rybakov , in one paper, suggested that the pastor associated with the word “god” was a tax on smerds who openly performed pagan rituals [3] (this interpretation is also supported by neo-pagan authors ). He also expressed another assumption: the pastor is "repression for the excesses against the church" [4]. I. Ya. Froyanov noted that the first interpretation of Rybakov is more plausible than the second [5] . At first, Froyanov did not agree with Rybakov’s first interpretation, but then changed his opinion [6]. There was a third version of the interpretation of B. A. Rybakov: "Zabozhniche" could be bought out from the prince of the people of the Novgorod land, who returned to pagan rituals [7].

Uprising in Novgorod[]

Because of the famine riots began in Novgorod. The culprit was declared lord Arseny, who was nearly killed. After that shot up the town and went to the men with guns Chamber rob the house of the boyars . The elements saved the Novgorodians from mutual extermination: a hurricane wind arose, bringing the first ice from Ilmen , which destroyed the Great Bridge over the Volkhov , dispersed eight of the town workers (the bridge components) out of nine. The warring parties were separated by Volkhov, and the young sons of Yaroslav, Alexander and Fyodor were taken away by the boyars who had fled from revolt left with them to look after the boyars: Fedor Danilovich and Tyun Yakim.

The following chronicle [1] tells the details of the spring of 1229 (in modern translation) :

" ... they slaughtered people alive and ate, and some dead bodies were cut and eaten from corpses, and still others - horse meat, dog meat, cats. On those who hunted, they did it like this: they would be burned by fire, and others would be robbed. Someone moss ate, straw, pine, lime bark and leaves, silt - who will think of something. Others, especially evil people, often set fire to the houses of rich people, where they smelled rye, and took away their property. " The escape of the sons of Yaroslav was regarded as a sign from Yaroslav himself [1]:

" Then Novgorodians rѣsha: yes ashche these evil sdumav on holy Sofѣyu and pobѣgl will and we do not ih gonilѣ, Hb take your esmya kaznilѣ and Prince esmya no evil stvorilѣ Nico is yes im on and God will krest chestnyi and we sobѣ Prince promyslim " and, without waiting for a response, they sent delegates to Mikhail of Chernigov . In St. Thomas's week (the first after Easter), he returned to Novgorod, kissed the cross and gave freedom to smerds for five years not to pay tribute if he escaped to someone else's land (meaning the Novgorod colonization of new lands) , and for those who live here, pay tribute which the former princes installed. In the same summer, a large bridge was laid, above the old one [1].

Having established a relative order in the dying Novgorod, Michael, along with several important citizens, went to Chernigov on his own business , leaving his son Rostislav . And before that he sent messengers to Yaroslav asking him to leave Volodsk Novgorod. Yaroslav replied: “I won't leave. You are on your own, I am myself ” [1].

== Notes ++

  1. ^ a b c d e Новгородская первая летопись старшего и младшего изводов. — М.-Л.: «Издательство Академии Наук СССР», 1950. — 659 с //«Ізборник». Історія України IX—XVIII
  2. ^ С. М. Соловьев. История России с древнейших времён. Т. 2. 1869. С. 469.
  3. ^ Рыбаков Б. А. Языческое мировоззрение русского средневековья. // «Вопросы истории», 1974, № 1, с. 24.
  4. ^ Рыбаков Б. А. Культура средневекового Новгорода. // Как была крещена Русь. Сборник. М., 1988. С. 305.
  5. ^ Фроянов И. Я. Древняя Русь IX—XIII веков. Народные движения. Княжеская и вечевая власть. М.: Русский издательский центр, 2014. С. 406.
  6. ^ Фроянов И. Я. Киевская Русь: Очерки социально-экономической истории. Очерк восьмой.
  7. ^ Рыбаков Б. А. Язычество Древней Руси. М., 1987. С. 686.

Literature[]

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